Research

Are Community College Training Programs For Paraeducators Feasible?

French, Nancy K.; Cabell, Elizabeth A.
Community College Journal of Research and Practice; v17 n2 p131-40 Mar-Apr 1993

Examines the feasibility of developing training programs in the Colorado community college system for paraeducators (i.e., technicians who provide personal care, instructional services and behavior management to students with disabilities and remedial needs) based on a survey of directors of special education, teachers, and personnel directors. Suggests characteristics of such programs.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ461675

Beyond The Expert Helping Model: Empowering Paraprofessionals And Families At Risk

Journal of Extension; v31 p14-16 Fall 1993

Outlines two models for working with families living in at-risk environments: the empowerment model and the expert model, with particular emphasis on the role of paraprofessionals.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ472112

Changes In Concern And Working Knowledge Levels Following Attendance At A Vocational Special Needs Paraprofessional Training Workshop

Jones, Karen H.; Nagel, K.L.
Journal of Vocational and Technical Education; v9 n2 p17-23 Spr 1993

Thirty-two vocational special needs paraprofessionals who attended a training certification workshop significantly increased their knowledge of and concern for special needs students. A comprehensive training model encompassing 12 special needs categories was developed.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ470062

Child Academic Engagement Related To Proximity Of Paraprofessionals

Werts, Margaret Gessler; Adviser: Zigmond, Naomi
University of Pittsburgh, AAT 9906254, DAI-A 59/09, p. 3407, Mar 1999, 127 pp.

Paraprofessionals are persons who work in classrooms under the supervision of teachers or other certified personnel. The duties and responsibilities of a paraprofessional have changed over the past few decades and they may vary from situation to situation. In some cases, reported activities include being a member of a collaborative team, guiding students in drill and practice exercises, or teaching instructional groups. Some teachers use paraprofessionals only for transition from one area of the building to another, while others appeared to use the extra assistance for teaching small groups and monitoring academic tasks. Recent authorizations of legislation that call for the appropriate education of children with disabilities have increased the use of non-professional personnel due to shortages in the supply of certified and qualified personnel to deliver services, as well as the cost of staffing schools with adequate numbers of teachers. The continued increase in the number of students with disabilities who are educated in inclusive settings may escalate the practice even more.

The increase in use of paraprofessionals has not been accompanied by systematic examination to determine if use of non-certified personnel leads to appropriate child outcomes, such as an increase in a child's academic engagement. This study examined the effect of paraprofessional proximity at two positions (less than 2 feet from the child and more than 5 feet from the child). A single subject alternating treatments design (n = 4) was used to investigate the effects of proximity on academic engagement (passive, active, and non-engaged) and the nature and frequency of interactions between children with disabilities and the paraprofessionals in the two proximity conditions.Ê Results indicated that: (1) occurrence of non-engaged behaviors is higher when paraprofessionals are positioned more than 5 feet from the children; (2) occurrence of engaged behavior is higher when the paraprofessional is within 2 feet of the child; and (3) for some, but not all children, active engagement is related to with verbal interactions with the paraprofessional.

A Consultation And Paraprofessional Pull-In System Of Service Delivery: A Report On Student Outcomes And Teacher Satisfaction

Welch, Marshall; Richards, Gayle; Okada, Teresa
Remedial and Special Education, v. 16 (Jan. 1995) p. 16-28

This article presents the results of an evaluation study conducted to assess the impact of a hybrid approach to educational partnership known as the Consultation and Paraprofessional Pull-in System (CAPPS) for serving at-risk students and those with mild academic disabilities. CAPPS is the synthesis of three predominant methods of shared responsibility in service delivery: (1) resource/consulting teacher (R/CT), (2) pull-in programming, and (3) utilization of paraprofessionals for service delivery. This article begins by providing a description of the CAPPS model and its implementation at an elementary school in a suburban area of the Rocky Mountain region using cross-grade grouping and outcome-based education as a basis for instructional programming and evaluation. Results from a quantitative and qualitative evaluation project designed to assess teacher attitudes, student outcomes, and number of referrals for special education services are presented. The article concludes with a discussion of the results followed by recommendations for implementation and further research.

Current Trends In The Use Of Paraprofessionals In Early Intervention And Preschool Services

NEC*TAS Synthesis Report
Striffler, Nancy
Frank Porter Graham Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1993, 30 pp.
A product of the National Early Childhood Technical Assistance System

This paper synthesizes current thinking, issues, and practices related to the use of paraprofessionals in the provision of early intervention and preschool services to children with disabilities, birth through 5 years of age, and their families. Information was gathered from 31 state and jurisdiction coordinators of preschool services under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and coordinators of IDEA Part H. Findings revealed that 18 states had a policy for assuring quality personnel for either early intervention or preschool services that includes the use of paraprofessionals; that 5 more states indicated that a policy was in the planning stage; and that 8 states indicated that no policy exists. Ten states reported that they had established a new occupational category; of these, eight were at the paraprofessional level. Fourteen states had developed or were developing personnel standards for paraprofessionals, and 10 states had developed or were developing a credentialing process. Case examples of two states are presented: Illinois, where the Department of Education is the lead agency for both Part B and Part H programs; and Utah, where the State Board of Education is the lead agency for Part B and the Department of Health is the lead agency for Part H programs. Names and addresses of state resources for information on paraprofessional personnel policies and practices are listed. Appendixes contain a copy of the data collection instrument and a chart reporting each state's response.

ERIC Accession Number: ED358655

Effect Of A Staff Training Package On Increasing Community Integration For People With Severe Disabilities

Smalley, Kimberly A.; and others

Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities; v32 n1 p42-48 Mar 1997

Evaluation of the effectiveness of a training program for behavioral aides providing individualized support for adults with severe disabilities and challenging behaviors in a day treatment center found all five participants were able to show marked increases in their clients' social and physical community integration. The training program focused on challenging behaviors, valued activities, and physical and social integration.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ542767

The Effectiveness Of An Intervener Model Of Services For Young Deaf-Blind Children

Watkins, Susan, and others
American Annals of the Deaf; v139 n4 p404-09 Oct 1994

This study attempted to validate the effectiveness of the Intervener Service Model, which provides the services of a paraprofessional (called an intervener) to families of young children who are deaf-blind. The intervener provides auditory, visual, and tactile stimulation and helps the child develop interaction behaviors. Quantitative and qualitative data support the effectiveness of the model.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ493082

Employment Of Educators In Preschool Mainstreaming: A Survey Of General Early Educators

Wolery, Mark; and others

Journal of Early Intervention; v18 n1 p64-77 Win 1994

A national survey of 483 preschool personnel revealed that paraprofessionals were hired in high proportions across all program types and more frequently in mainstreamed than non-mainstreamed programs. The lowest levels of paraprofessional employment occurred for public school kindergartens. Nearly three-fourths of the mainstreamed programs did not report hiring a special education teacher.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ487939

Esl In Special Education

Nancy Cloud, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Washington, DC
Internet ED303044, Dec. 88 ESL in Special Education, ERIC Digest

Article shows that LEP students require tailored educational services and exceptional LEP students require highly specialized programs. Focus is on strategies that will prevent inappropriate referral of the LEP student into special education. Author sees need to have special educators and ESL educators cross-trained in order to deliver integrated services that will account for childrenâs second language and disability characteristics. She presents a strong desire to have ESL materials developed for both mildly and moderately/severely disabled students. This article is written for the administrator or program specialist who is interested in cross-training professionals and paraprofessionals in ESL and Special Education. Included is a wealth of documented reference for those who may desire to research programs for the LEP special education student.

An Examination Of Paraprofessional Involvement In Supporting Inclusion Of Students With Autism

Young, Brooke; and others
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities; v12 n1 p31-38,48 Spr 1997

A study monitored the behaviors of three students (ages 7-9) with autism in inclusionary settings relative to paraprofessional proximity and classroom activity. Results are presented for on-task behavior, in-seat behavior, self-stimulatory responses, and inappropriate vocalizations. Data are also presented for interactions initiated by paraprofessionals, teachers, and students. Implications for paraprofessional training are discussed.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ544392

Expanding Paraprofessional Staff To Help Children Succeed In School Neighborhood Employment Initiative

Seeley, David S.
Institute for Responsive Education, Boston, Mass., 1993, 45 pp.
Institute for Responsive Education, 605 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 ($8)

A preliminary study reports on the possibilities for increasing the employment of people from New York City's poor neighborhoods to help children succeed in school through such non-classroom activities as home visitation, parent education, facilitation, and coordination of parent-involvement activities, and assistance in the provision of health, counseling, and family services. It is based on a review of present paraprofessional staffing in New York City and discussions with people inside and outside the school system. Preliminary results indicate that hiring neighborhood people to help schools is a sound concept. At present, there are many paraprofessionals in New York, but only a small number of paraprofessionals are employed in reaching out to families. There is a pressing need for the kinds of services such a staff could provide. Some existing funds could be reprogrammed for these purposes, and some new sources are possible. The selection and training of paraprofessionals is extremely important, as are leadership and administration, career ladders, and continuing evaluation and research of their use. Appendix A provides background information, and Appendix B is a suggested funding proposal.

ERIC Accession Number: ED376237

The Impact Of Inclusion Of Students With Challenging Needs

Bang, Myong Ye; Lamb, Peg
Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps (TASH) (New Orleans, LA, November 1996), 17 pp.

This study examined the impact of 3 years of full inclusion of students with severe disabilities in a Lansing (Michigan) high school. Teacher and parent surveys as well as observations of student interactions and classrooms were used to evaluate inclusion of seven students with low-incidence disabilities (autistic impairment, trainable mental impairment, severe mental impairment, and severe multiple impairments). In general, parents reported positive changes in family life with increased interactions with family friends and neighbors, decreased behavioral problems, but increased parenting stress. Both special and general education teachers reported that information sharing, development of instructional materials, and support from consultants and paraprofessions were effective. Similarly, both groups of educators reported that in-service programs, staff development activities, and technical assistance from the district were ineffective. Parents and teachers agreed that students' in-school opportunities for interaction with nondisabled students were enhanced in the inclusive setting. Observation of classrooms found interactions between included students and nondisabled peers to be overwhelmingly accepting. Classroom observations also indicated that paraprofessionals assisted the included students in understanding directions but tended to dominate the student's interactions. Implications for improved staff development in the future are discussed. (Contains 13 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED408745

Improving The Classroom Behaviour Of A Student With Severe Disabilities Via Paraprofessional Training

Martella, Ronald C.; and others B.C. Journal of Special Education; v17 n1 p33-44 1993

Systematic training of a paraprofessional in effective instructional procedures with a student with severe mental retardation and aberrant behaviors resulted in improved skills and fewer negative statements by the paraprofessional and decreased aberrant behaviors and increased compliance by the student. Follow-up at 55 weeks indicated maintenance of improved skills and student behaviors.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ472638

In First Person Plural: Growing Up With A Disadvantaged Community

Salach, Simcha
Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands), 1993, 116 pp.
Bernard van Leer Foundation, P.O. Box 82334, 2508 EH The Hague, Netherlands.

From the perspective of the project leader, this book traces the growth and development of the Early Childhood and Family Education Project in Morasha, Israel, during the 8 years of its existence (1982-1990). Chapter 1 describes Morasha, a poor, immigrant neighborhood in Ramat HaSharon, and the author's childhood there. Chapter 2 describes the efforts of the Morasha Council to include the community in the state of Israel's Project Renewal. Chapter 3 reviews Project Renewal activities and efforts to obtain funding from the Bernard van Leer Foundation to begin the Early Childhood and Family Education Project, which sought to develop programs to train paraprofessional women from the community, implementing a home visiting program for mothers and preschoolers, and develop a program of family day care centers for toddlers and preschool children. Chapter 4 describes the work involved in building the project's infrastructure. In chapter 5, basic project approaches, principles, and objectives are described, while in chapter 6, the work involved in translating these theories into community work is detailed. Chapters 7 and 8 focus on the project's professional staff, paraprofessional counselors, and paraprofessional care-givers. In chapter 9, efforts to disseminate the project to additional communities in the region are related. Chapter 10 describes the project's structural and organizational characteristics and relationships with other agencies. Chapter 11 explains the project's evaluation component, and chapter 12 provides a summary of the project as a personal and collective journey. Additional information about the project is appended.

ERIC Accession Number: ED369492

Increasing Day Care Staff Members' Interactions During Care-Giving Routines

Venn, Martha L.; Wolery, Mark
Journal of Early Intervention; v16 n4 p304-19 Fall 1992

Four paraprofessional staff members in a mainstreamed day care program were trained to engage in positive interactive behaviors during diaper changing. Results indicated that staff increased frequency of game playing and other interactive behaviors during diapering, but increases were not generalized to feeding routines.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ459625

Investigating The Effects Of A Paraprofessional Teaching Sharing Behaviors To Young Children With Special Needs In An Inclusive Kindergarten Classroom

Perez, Janelle Cordes; Adviser: Murdock, Jane
University of New Orleans, AAT 9900965, DAI-A 59/08, P. 2928, Feb 1999, 223 pp.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the following research questions: First, will the paraprofessional's modeling, prompting, and reinforcement strategy increase specific sharing behaviors of young children with disabilities/special needs? Second, will the sharing behaviors maintain over time? A single-subject design and a multiple baseline procedure across subjects were used to answer these questions.

The target behavior, sharing, is an important developmental task for young children with special needs. Therefore, the sharing behaviors of two females and three males who were developmentally delayed and between 61 months and 66 months of age were investigated in an inclusive kindergarten setting in a public elementary school.

Overall results revealed that the paraprofessional's intervention was effective in increasing all five of the participants' sharing behaviors. Furthermore, four of the participants' sharing behaviors maintained over 7-9 days and four of the participants' sharing behavior persisted over 113-115 days after the intervention ceased. Thus, the non-intrusive and efficient intervention could be implemented by other paraprofessionals in inclusive kindergarten settings to teach young children with special needs to share.

Meeting The Challenge Of Paraprofessional Training: An Application Of The Competence Model

Sullivan, Kathleen O'Connell; Adviser: Swift, Marshall
Widener University, Institute for Graduate Clinical Psychology, AAT 9824803, DAI-B 59/02, p. 889, Aug 1998, 159 pp.

The purpose of this dissertation was to design a process to develop and increase the psychological skills of children with emotional and behavioral disorders while guiding the special education paraprofessionals to foster psychosocial skills and to actively participate in the development of a competence-based therapeutic milieu. In an effort to achieve this goal, a survey was conducted with paraprofessionals to assess the current state of training in a moderate-sized mental health clinic. In addition, the survey tapped the paraprofessionals' perceptions of the typical skills displayed by the students in their service. Based upon the results of this survey and a review of the relevant literature, a three-phase paraprofessional training process was developed. Phase I focuses on the selection of paraprofessional personnel. Phase II focuses on paraprofessional training. Phase III focuses on an on-going consultation process between the psychologist and the paraprofessional.

Meeting The Demands For Quality Teachers: A Case Study Of A Bilingual Paraprofessional-To-Bilingual-Teacher Training Program

Torres, Roberto L.; Adviser: Meloth, Michael
University of Colorado at Boulder, AAT 9838414, DAI-A 59/06, p. 1983, Dec. 1998, 287 pp.

The training of paraprofessionals to become teachers has been a practice used to meet the high demand of educators. This practice represents a challenge because paraprofessionals require a training that will improve their knowledge and skills in areas like bilingual education. The Paraprofessional Teacher Training Program (PTTP) was designed as an innovative approach that trained paraprofessionals who were aspiring to careers in education.

This dissertation studies and discusses the impact of the PTTP on four of its graduates in light of key program components and experiences that related to their formation. It is a case study that included in-depth teacher interviews and classroom observations. The relevance of this study resided in understanding the training program elements that impacted new teachers and why they feel empowered to teach after participating in the

PTTP. The study asked the following: (1) What types of professional benefits do the teachers attribute to their participation in the PTTP? (2) What kinds of instruction do the teachers provide for their students and do the instruction and curriculum reflect the goals of the PTTP? (3) In what other ways are the goals of the PTTP reflected in what teachers' do in their classrooms after receiving formal training?

The results indicated that the post-training experiences of the participants notably contrasted with their experiences as paraeducators. Specifically, the data indicated that the program fulfilled the participants' desire for a personal education, and their knowledge of educational matters. The data also indicated that the program: (a) helped the participants develop some teaching competencies necessary to work with LEP students, (b) did not have any effect on some of the desired competencies, and (c) resulted in the development of competencies not included as part of the goals of the training. Finally, as a result of a cultural and linguistic immersion experiences in Mexico, the participants also acquired some background knowledge of the LEP students school culture and language that they claim helps them better understand and educate their LEP students.

Paraprofessionals In Inclusive Classrooms: Working Without A Net

Milner, Carole Anne; Adviser: Olson, Myrna
The University of North Dakota, AAT 9833557, DAI-A 59/05, P. 1527, Nov 1998, 236 pp.

This qualitative study was designed to answer the question: ãWhat happens when a paraprofessional is assigned to provide individual, direct service to a student with disabilities in an inclusive classroom?ä Selection of the primary participants, paraprofessionals, was completed by securing the cooperation of three paraprofessionals identified as successful by the school principals and the special education teachers supervising the paraprofessionals. Three paraprofessionals were observed in inclusive classrooms one morning and one afternoon per week throughout the fall semester of 1997. Interviews were conducted with the 3 paraprofessionals, 3 special education teachers, 11 general education teachers of inclusive classes, 3 middle school students with disabilities, and 6 high school students with disabilities. The data obtained from the observations, interview transcripts, and diagrams drawn by interviewees were initially analyzed using $/rm NUD[/cdot]IST,$ a qualitative analysis software package, to generate the themes. Analysis was completed with the use of word processing software as a slightly more automated version of the typical index card sorting and categorizing process used by qualitative researchers.

The two major themes arising from the study are deficits in communication and deficits in preparation/training for inclusion. These deficits were most prevalent in the interactions, and lack of interactions, between paraprofessionals and general education teachers, and between special education teachers and general education teachers. The areas of communication deficit concern (1) paraprofessionals' roles, responsibilities, and preparation, (2) general education teachers' responsibility for paraprofessionals, and (3) interpretation of goals of inclusion. The deficits in preparation/training were noted in (1) appropriate use of paraprofessionals to foster social inclusion of students with disabilities, (2) opportunities for on-the-job-training and modeling for paraprofessionals, (3) inservice about inclusion for general education teachers, and (4) supervisory training for special and general education teachers.

Paraprofessionals In Italy: Perspectives From An Inclusive Counrty

Palladino, Paola; Scruggs, Thomas E.
The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v24, n4, 254-258, 1999.

Since 1977, Italy has largely eliminated special schools and special classes in favor of neighborhood school placements where students with disabilities are served primarily in general education classes. Overall class sizes are very small and caseloads of special education teachers are very favorable (about two students with disabilities for each special education teacher).Ê Because of these factors, it was thought that attitudes towards the role of paraprofessionals in Italian schools would differ from those toward paraprofessionals in the United States, where many paraprofessionals take on a more independent role in inclusive classrooms.Ê In this discussion article, we suggest that the role of paraprofessionals might be viewed differently in Italy than in the United States, and that these differences may reflect differing levels of available support for inclusive classrooms.

Parent Perspectives On The Roles Of Paraprofessionals

ÊFrench, Nancy K., Chopra, Ritu V.
The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v24, n4, 259-272, 1999.

This article examines parent perceptions of paraprofessional roles and employment conditions.Ê Nineteen mothers of 23 children who received special education services in general education classrooms with support from paraprofessionals participated in focus group interviews.Ê This exploratory study revealed that these mothers identified closely with paraprofessionals and believed that hey were compassionate, dedicated people, who functioned in four major roles: connector, team member, instructor, physical caregiver/health needs provider. ÊParticipants also identified problems associated with paraprofessional employment including the lack of training, low pay, and lack of respect for the position, resulting in high levels of turnover. ÊRespect for paraprofessionals was of particular concern to the mothers, who believed that the respect accorded to paraprofessionals reflected the respect accorded to their children.

Paraprofessionals In Job Coach Roles

Rogan, Patricia M., Held, Mary
The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v24, n4, 273-280 1999.

The purpose of this article is to examine issues related to paraprofessionals in job coach roles for students with disabilities. Postschool outcomes of students with disabilities are partially dependent on the nature and quality of supports they receive during this critical time of transition in their lives. Although schools are increasingly relying on paraprofessionals to support students in school and community settings, including workplaces, there is growing concern about their lack of preparation and support. This article describes issues related to recruitment, retention, orientation, and training of paraprofessionals in job coach roles. In addition, roles and responsibilities, supervision, support, evaluation, and compensation issuers are discussed in relation to school job coaches.Ê Recommendations for improving practice are offered, which require an investment on the part of schools to ensure the provision of quality services and supports.

The Perceptions Of The Administrators, Faculty, And Teacher Aides/Tutors Regarding Staff Development At Mountain View Elementary School (Hawaii)

Watanabe, Myrna Gail
California State University, Long Beach, AAT 1391698, MAI 37/01, p. 33, Feb 1999, 57 pp.

The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which a staff development program met the needs of administrators, faculty, and paraprofessional tutors and supported them in their efforts to implement necessary changes. Throughout the literature, it has been reported that staff development can be an effective tool for educational improvement, having more positive results if it is school based and schoolwide and teachers are involved in the planning, selecting, implementation, and decision making. Teachers need to sense ownership in the plan and have substantial amounts of technical assistance, peer coaching, and appropriate topics for those involved.

As staff development was implemented at the school, all participants were provided opportunity to give feedback on the process. The results of this study indicated that with proper implementation of staff development, the needs of faculty and staff were met. They were supported in their efforts to successfully implement necessary changes.

Preparation Of Students For Testing: Teacher Differentiation Of Appropriate And Inappropriate Practices

Moore, William P.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education (Atlanta, GA, April 13-15, 1993), 20 pp.

This paper studied whether or not elementary school classroom teachers in a large urban Midwestern school district were able to distinguish appropriate from inappropriate testing practices in a large-scale mandated program. Fifty of 62 teachers and paraprofessionals in 2 elementary schools completed the Teacher Assessment Preparation Practices Questionnaire (TAPQ), which explored 40 specific testing behaviors of teachers from pre-testing to post-testing. Respondents rated each teacher behavior regarding testing for acceptability. Participants distinguished appropriate testing behaviors, but did not demonstrate the expected capability when rating the behaviors. Less than half of the inappropriate behaviors were correctly identified. Those that were characterized as inappropriate had the largest standard errors and variability indices, indicative of disagreement among participants about the appropriateness of these practices. Teachers and paraprofessionals responded in similar ways, demonstrating similar levels of understanding of testing practice. Findings support other research results that have suggested that classroom educators are not prepared to implement appropriate and acceptable test preparation and test administration practices. Recommendations for improvement are included. One figure illustrates the discussion, and four tables summarize responses to the questionnaire items.

ERIC Accession Number: ED357033

Promoting Independence In Integrated Classrooms By Teaching Aides To Use Activity Schedules And Decreased Prompts

Hall, Laura J.; and others
Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities; v30 n3 p208-17 Sep 1995
Available fromÊ UMI

This study aimed to increase the independent engagement of integrated elementary students with disabilities, by decreasing prompts from aides and using pictorial activity schedules to diminish dependence on adult support. A nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design, replicated across three aide-child pairs, revealed that the intervention resulted in prompt reduction by the integration aides.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ510031

Recruiting And Preparing African-Americans For Teaching Through Alternative Certification

Persley, Mary L.; Adviser: Shaughnessy, Mary Angela
Spalding University, AAT 9835689, DAI-A 59/05, p. 1533, Nov 1998, 89 pp.

This study recognizes and emphasizes the need for more African-American teachers to serve the increasing diverse student population. The research focuses on alternative teacher certification as an effective model for the recruitment and preparation of nontraditional African-Americans for a teaching career. This research study was conducted by analyzing the experiences and perspectives of a cohort of 32 alternative teacher certification program participants. The participants were recruited from the African-American, paraprofessional employee ranks of Jefferson County Public Schools. The data for the subjects are classified on contingency tables according to the perceived benefit level of the alternative teacher certification program vs. the relationship to age, gender, and the number of years out of school prior to entering the program. Using inferential testing, parametric chi-square hypothesis tests for independence was performed at the.05 level of significance on each of the contingency tables. The overall findings are that there is no difference in perception of program benefit level with regard to age and gender. However, there is a significant relationship to the number of years out of school versus the perceived level of program benefit. This study also discloses the features that make for an effective alternative teacher certification program from the subjects' perspectives.

Report Of Organization Of The Field Work Group A

McEwen, B.; and others,
Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness; v86 n7 suppl p344-45 Sep 1992
NOTE:Ê Theme Issue: The State of the Blindness System Today. 1987-1990 Helen Keller Seminars.

This summary of a seminar meeting on reorganization of the field of rehabilitation for persons with blindness or visual impairment addresses the need for a national coalition, formation of a national agency for blind persons, consolidation of services, the use of paraprofessionals, the need for separate state plans, agency accreditation, and training of professionals.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ455801

The Tip Of The Iceberg: Determining Whether Paraprofessional Support Is Needed For Students With Disabilities In General Education Settings

Giangrecco, Michael F., Broer, Stephen M., Edelman, Susan W.

The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v24, n4, 281-291, 1999.

Parprofessionals represent an important and growing segment of the personnel support used in American schools to provide inclusive educational opportunities to students with disabilities.Ê When and how to utilize paraprofessionals effectively, persists as an ongoing challenge in the schools.Ê After presenting selected issues associated with employing paraprofessionals, this article extends the discussion on paraprofessional issues by exploring guidelines to assist teams in making decisions about paraprofessional supports. This includes both considerations for the appropriate use of paraprofessionals when assigned, as well as alternative support solutions. Our discussion is intended to advance dialogue on this important topic and to support the appropriate involvement of paraprofessionals in the education of students with disabilities as valued participants on collaborative teams whose roles are clearly defined and supported.

Use Of Focus-Group Needs Assessment For Planning Paraprofessional Staff Development In Iowa's Education Settings

Hansen, Deb
Journal of Children's Communication Development; v18 n1 p81-89 Spr-Sum 1997

Describes how focus groups comprised of speech-language professionals, paraprofessionals, general and special education teachers, and parents in Iowa were used to conduct a needs assessment of issues in staff development and use of paraprofessional personnel and to design job-relevant personnel development programs. An attached chart lists themes emerging from the groups.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550633

Using Interpreter-Tutors In School Programs For Students Who Are Deaf-Blind

Ford, J.; Fredericks,B.
Journal-of-Visual-Impairment-&-Blindness; v89 n3 p229-34 May-Jun 1995
Available from UMI

This article presents a model for utilizing a new paraprofessional, the interpreter-tutor, to help provide necessary educational support in public schools to children who are deaf-blind. It discusses the role of the interpreter-tutor, outlines required knowledge and skills, and gives a case study example.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ506625

Utilization Of Paraprofessionals In Special Education: A Review Of The Literature

Jones, Karen H.; Bender, William N.
Remedial and Special Education (RASE); v14 n1 p7-14 Jan-Feb 1993

This article reviews research examining expanding roles of paraprofessionals in special education; their efficacy, based on student outcomes and educators' perceptions; empirical bases for training; and training models. Conclusions are drawn concerning the expanded role of paraprofessionals, lack of efficacy data, and lack of systematic training.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ459464