Paraeducator Bibliography

NRCP Paraeducator Training Resources, Administrative Guidelines, and Personnel Preparation Models Bibliography

An Annotated Bibliography 1991-1999
Edited by Andrew J. Humm and Anna Lou Pickett


In recent years, there has been an explosion of materials on and for paraeducators. The National Resource Center for Paraeducator in Education and Related Services has been compiling these resources into bibliographies for twenty years. To prepare this latest edition of materials from 1991 to 1999, we culled through hundreds of publications. These resources can be of use to educators, trainers, administrators, parents and other caregivers, and paraeducators themselves.

We gratefully acknowledge the permission of the ERIC system to cite bibliographical entries from their database. Many of the items cite ERIC numbers for those seeking access to the full documents via their system.

*Developed through a grant (H029K970088-98) from the Division of Personnel Preparation, OSEP. Please acknowledge the source of the material.

This bibliography is divided into six sections, many of which overlap:

Career Development Programs and Models

Breaking The Class Ceiling: Paraeducator Pathways To Teaching

Haselkorn, David; Fideler, Elizabeth
Recruiting New Teachers, Inc., Belmont, MA.
Recruiting New Teachers, Inc., 385 Concord Avenue, Belmont, MA 02178 (while supplies last), 1996, 304 p.

This report examines a grass-roots movement for teacher diversity and development: paraeducator pathways into teaching. The desire to recruit a more diverse pool of teachers for urban schools and critical shortage areas has spurned a renewed interest in paraprofessional career opportunity programs. The 149 paraeducator-to-teacher programs identified in a survey by Recruiting New Teachers are described in terms of program scope and purpose; a profile of participants; overcoming barriers to participation; program models; recruiting, evaluating, and tracing participants; program budget and administration; and outlook. Sources of support for paraeducator-to-teacher programs include foundations, federal and state sponsorship, and teacher unions and paraprofessional associations. The study suggests that the paraeducator-to-teacher programs are an important influence in diversifying the teacher workforce, can be an important link between schools and communities, and can raise skill levels and earning power of their participants. A substantial bibliography is included. The appendices include profiles of nine programs; study methodology; presentation of data from the program survey; strategies to help paraeducators surmount barriers to career advancement; and workshop topics for staff.

ERIC Accession Number: ED398184

Career Development For Non-Traditional Community College Students As Special Education Paraprofessionals

Final Report

Harrison, Sharonlyn

Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI. Developmental Disabilities Inst., 1997, 201 pp.

Developmental Disabilities Institute, Wayne State University, 268 Leonard Simons Building, 4809 Woodward Ave., Detroit, MI 48202; telephone: 313-577-2654.

This final report describes the Career Development for Non-Traditional College Students as Special Education Paraprofessionals Project, a Michigan project designed to develop career paths and employment opportunities for paraprofessionals who work with children, youth, and adults with disabilities. Its intent was to develop a value-based curriculum that focuses on community presence and participation, communicates guiding values, and emphasizes; human relationships and support to individuals with disabilities. While learning best practices in the field, students also developed the skills needed for successful academic work. Highlights of the project included: (1) creating career path possibilities for paraprofessionals; (2) affecting persons with developmental disabilities and their families through paraprofessional training experiences that provided a vision of community presence and participation; (3) developing an extensive curriculum and student handbook; (4) developing innovative recruitment strategies, including a closed-captioned video; (5) enhancing the status of the direct-care role through building career paths that allowed paraprofessional to obtain higher education and job advancement within the field; (6) increasing minority participants through targeted minority recruitment; and (7) teaching state of the art strategies to paraprofessionals. Appendices include a paraprofessional curriculum for community inclusion, course listings, and a technical assistance guide.

ERIC Accession Number: ED415647

Career Ladder Approach To Training For Community Facilities Personnel And Paraeducators In The State Of North Dakota

Vassiliou, Demetrios; Johnson, Dave
In: Montgomery, Diane, Ed., Rural Partnerships: Working Together. Proceedings of the Annual National Conference of the American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) (14th, Austin, TX, March 23-26, 1994), 11 pp.

Since 1983, the North Dakota Statewide Mentally Retarded/Developmentally Disabled Faculty Staff Training Program has used a career ladder approach to provide training to over 10,000 staff, primarily in scattered rural developmental-disability facilities. Cooperative relationships among the Department of Human Services, Minot State University, and community providers have been critical to the program's success. The training program uniquely meets the needs of rural states. A "circuit rider" provides technical assistance to developmental-disability regional trainers working with facility staff. Full-time direct-service staff are required to demonstrate knowledge and skills in topic areas addressed in 13 training modules, and have the option of studying 20 additional modules. The program offers a seven-step professional development sequence for career advancement, ranging from entry-level orientation to a Master's degree in special education. Learning options include formal instruction, on-site demonstration, mentoring, and self-study. Staff may "test out" of individual modules. Key program elements include comprehensive but flexible training materials, a state system of training records, state standards and certification for training, and a career training sequence leading to academic degrees. In 1992, the program was expanded to provide field-based training to special-education paraeducators. Training consists of four mandatory modules for basic certification and four or five of nine optional modules for advanced certification. Trainees may receive college credit.

ERIC Accession Number: ED369591

Career Pathways For Related Service Paratherapists Working In Early Intervention And Other Education Settings

Longhurst, Thomas M.
Journal of Children's Communication Development; v18 n1 p23-30 Spr-Sum 1997

Discusses issues in personnel training practices for paraprofessionals providing related services in early intervention and education settings. The term paratherapist is used to refer to paraprofessionals working under the supervision of professionals in physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology. Presents a philosophy of related service paratherapist utilization and a summary of current and future needs for paratherapists.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550629

Diversifying From Within: The Minority Teacher Scholarship Program

Fielder, Donald J.
Phi Delta Kappan, v. 77 (Feb. 1996) p. 445-6

The writer describes a cooperative program that has helped a Georgia school district and a nearby university to produce more minority teachers. The Marietta City School District joined forces with Kennesaw State College to institute a Minority Student-to-Teacher Recruitment and Training Program. Under the program, students receive scholarships to follow an education degree program at the university in return for a commitment to teach one year in the school district for every year they are on scholarship. The scholarships are jointly funded: The school district's general fund pays for half of all the costs, the university's endowment fund pays a quarter, and the district's own foundation pays for the remaining quarter. As well as the scholarship, which pays for tuition and fees, the participants receive part-time or full-time paraprofessional positions with the district.

Diversifying The Teaching Force: Preparing Paraeducators As Teachers. ERIC Digest

Genzuk, Michael
ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education, Washington, DC., 1997; 4 p.

Paraeducators are school employees whose responsibilities are either instructional in nature or who deliver other services to students. Large numbers of paraeducators have expressed a desire to become professional teachers. Because many paraeducators, perhaps the majority, are from minority groups, they would expand the pool of potential teachers from underrepresented groups. Well-designed paraeducator-to-teacher programs foster stronger school/university collaboration, improved induction into teaching, and graduated assumption of teaching roles as knowledge and skills are refined. Data indicate four primary obstacles that, if mediated, may facilitate successful pathways for paraeducators attempting to attain teacher certification. These obstacles and suggested mediations are: (1) financial support--access to grants, scholarships, and other financial aid; (2) social factors--provision of programs and events for sensitizing the paraeducator's entire support community to the academic and social pressures the paraeducator may encounter; (3) academic obstacles--enrichment such as counseling, mentoring, tutoring, and extended programs for promising candidates who need expanded academic time frameworks; and (4) external pressures and stresses--school-site assisted performance (improved working conditions at the school site including salary, benefits, and job security, and a nurturing, supportive environment). (Contains 13 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED406362

First And Second Language Acquisition Processes

Intercultural Development Research Association, 5835 Callaghan Road, Suite 350, San Antonio, TX 78228; (210) 684-8180

Emphasizes the learning process for language acquisition. Using two dimensions of languageÖsocial and academicÖthis material provides information with the processes that students go through as they acquire English as a second language. Training is designed for professionals and paraprofessionals in the K-12 system.

Growing Your Own: A Model For Preparing Paraprofessionals To Be Fully Certified Teachers In Urban Classrooms

Dandy, Evelyn Baker
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997), 18 pp.

The Pathways program at Armstrong Atlantic State University (Georgia) is taking non-certified school district employees who have exemplary work records, better than average grades, and a sincere commitment to teaching and offering them tuition and other support so that they can take college courses and earn degrees leading to teacher certification. The employees must maintain a grade point average of 2.5 or higher, and upon graduation remain employed by the local public schools for at lest three years. Faculty teaching in the program have been encouraged to emphasize techniques that work well with children in urban environments. All lesson plans include a statement of relevance and must focus on participatory activities with ample opportunities for oral language development. Assignments encourage the use of materials and resources available in most urban homes. Community site visits include local museums featuring the local history and the accomplishments of local residents. This project has been accomplished through the collaboration of representatives from three institutions in Savannah (Georgia): Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah State University, and the Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools. Four tables are appended.

ERIC Accession Number: ED408253

Idaho's Three-Tiered System For Speech-Language Paratherapist Training And Utilization

Longhurst, Thomas M.
Journal of Children's Communication Development; v18 n1 p57-63 Spr-Sum 1997

Discusses the development and current implementation of Idaho's three-tiered system of speech-language paratherapists. Support personnel providing speech-language services to learners with special communication needs in educational settings must obtain one of three certification levels: (1) speech-language aide, (2) associate degree speech-language assistant, or (3) bachelor's level speech-language associate.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550631

Inclusion: An Essential Guide For The Paraprofessional:

A practical reference tool for all paraprofessionals working in inclusionary settings
Hammeken, Peggy A.
Peytral Publications, 1996. 144 p. ISBN: 0964427168


Final Report, September 1, 1993 to June 30, 1997
Palsha, Sharon and Wesley, Patricia in collaboration with Duncan Munn and Gene Perrotta
North Carolina University, Chapel Hill. Frank Porter Graham Center, 1997, 44 pp.

This final report discusses the outcomes of a North Carolina project designed to prepare professionals and paraprofessionals to deliver quality services in inclusive settings to young children with disabilities and their families. The primary component of the project was to develop and implement an on-site, inservice collaborative consultation model in which 40 early childhood professionals were trained as consultants to work with child care staff in their communities to improve the quality of child care environments. Consultants were primarily early intervention outreach specialists and resource and referral agency staff. The second component of the project was to support early childhood community college faculty in their curriculum planning and teaching efforts to prepare students to provide services to children with disabilities and their families. Evaluation data indicate that the on-site consultation model was successful in improving the quality of early childhood environments. By providing on-site follow up related to the participants identified needs, changes were made in program quality that were both measurable and lasting. The community college component of the program was also successful. Contains 2 tables and 12 figures.

ERIC Accession Number: ED411654

Increasing Teacher Diversity By Tapping The Paraprofessional Pool

Villegas, Ana Maria; Clewell, Beatriz C.

Theory into Practice, v. 37 no2 (Spring 1998) p. 121-30

Part of a special issue on preparing teachers for cultural diversity. Paraprofessionals represent a largely untapped pool from which people of color can be recruited and prepared for a teaching career. Increasing the proportion of teachers of color in public schools is necessary so that these teachers can serve as cultural brokers for the growing number of students of color and as role models for all students. In order to serve these paraprofessionals well, teacher education programs must set up partnerships with school districts to plan and implement a career ladder program, use multiple sources of information to select paraprofessionals for such a program, provide academic and social support services, modify the teacher education program, and secure tuition assistance.

Increasing The Number Of Minority Teachers: Tapping The Paraprofessional Pool

Dandy, Evelyn B, Armstrong Atlantic State University Pathways to Teaching Careers Program
Education and Urban Society, v. 31 no1 (Nov. 1998) p. 89-103

Part of a special issue on diversifying the teaching force to improve urban schools. The Pathways to Teaching Careers Program at Armstrong Atlantic State University (AASU), Georgia, is discussed. In attempting to meet Georgia's need for minority teachers, Pathways offers non-certified school district employees tuition and other support so they can take college courses and earn degrees leading to certification. In turn, the participants must maintain a grade point average of 2.5 or higher, attend all program-supported activities, and, when they graduate, remain employed by the local public schools for at least three years. The success of the AASU program is due primarily to strong collaboration between local schools and universities; leadership by a campus advocate who is committed to the program objectives; program standards that begin with a strategic selection process and provide financial, emotional, and academic support; and curricular modification that allows for flexible scheduling, includes strategies for teaching urban populations, and builds on cultural strengths.

Increasing The Number Of Teachers Of Color For Urban Schools

Lessons from the Pathways national evaluation Pathways to Teaching Careers Program
Villegas, Ana Maria; Clewell, Beatriz C.
Education and Urban Society, v. 31 no1 (Nov. 1998) p. 42-61

Part of a special issue on diversifying the teaching force to improve urban schools. A study examined the effectiveness of the Pathways to Teaching Careers Program, a privately supported teacher recruitment effort. Paraprofessionals and emergency-certified teachers are the program's primary recruitment targets. Data were obtained over three years as part of a five-year national evaluation of the program. As of June 1997, the 27 Pathways sites had collectively recruited and enrolled 1,854 participants or 15 percent more than the recruitment goal. The attrition rates for the emergency-certified teacher group and the paraprofessional group are 14 and 12 percent, respectively. The overall completion rate for the emergency-certified teacher group is 52 percent and for the paraprofessional group is 38 percent. However, these figures underestimate completion rates. Teaching effectiveness ratings are high for both emergency-certified and paraprofessional groups.

The Irvine Paraprofessional Program

Promising practice for serving students with ADHD
Kotkin, Ronald A
Journal of Learning Disabilities, v. 31 no6 (Nov./Dec. 1998) p. 556-64

The Irvine Paraprofessional Program (IPP) looks promising for serving elementary-school children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the general education classroom. This article describes the components of the IPP, preliminary research studies that support its efficacy, and the benefits of the model. The IPP is a 12-week intensive intervention that includes (a) direct intervention to children with ADHD by specially trained paraprofessionals, (b) teacher consultation by the school psychologist on the use of effective classroom management strategies, (c) school-based reinforcement, and (d) social skills training. Preliminary studies suggest that paraprofessionals can effect positive changes in children with ADHD that can be maintained by the teacher once the paraprofessional is removed from the classroom. The purpose of this article is to provide a description of the IPP as an effective model for serving children with ADHD in the general education classroom.

Multicultural Perspectives In The Classroom: Professional Preparation For Educational Paraprofessionals

Harper, Victoria
Action in Teacher Education, v. 16 (Fall 1994) p. 66-78

Part of a special issue on celebrating diversity in teacher education. The writer recommends the establishment of a recognized career path leading to full teaching certification for the educational paraprofessional. In response to the diverse cultural and linguistic needs of their students, many school districts employ teachers' aides who have little academic or pedagogical preparation and who operate at an organizationally disempowered level. The creation of an effective paraprofessional teaching population requires that paraprofessionals be prepared for the work they do, that they be allowed to move from one level of responsibility to the next within a sequence of preparation, and that career paths leading to full professional certification be established. The writer presents a historical view of paraprofessional programs, gives current examples of such programs, and suggests possible career paths for the paraprofessional.

National Policies And Training Frameworks For Early Childhood Education [In] The United States

The Child Development Associate and Other Credentialing Frameworks for Paraprofessionals
Hinitz, Blythe F.
Paper presented at the Warwick International Early Years Conference (2nd, March 28, 1996), 26 pp., 1996.

This paper reviews the history of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential, created in 1972 to meet the growing need for skilled child care workers to provide quality programs for young children in the United States. A pilot program was launched in 1974, leading to the granting of CDA credentials in 1975. Since 1976 over 60,000 CDA credentials have been awarded, and Head Start's current mandate includes one CDA per classroom. Critiques of the CDA system are reviewed, as are adaptations and variations on the original curriculum and model. Other nontraditional child care training and credential programs are also described. It is concluded that the CDA credential has created a cadre of competent, skilled educators and caregivers. Weaknesses and challenges associated with the program include confusion about the status of CDAs within the early childhood profession, self-regulation within the credentialing process, and the limited scope of the credential in non-Head Start settings. (Contains 56 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED397018

Oklahoma Dual Sensory Impairment Technical Assistance Project

Final Report
Lovett, David; Haring, Kathryn
Oklahoma University, Norman. 1996, 176 p.

This final report describes Oklahoma State Department of Education activities designed to improve technical assistance to special education programs and related services for children and youth with deaf-blindness. Specifically, activities of the project included: (1) training professionals, paraprofessionals, and related service providers preparing to serve or serving children and youth with deaf-blindness; (2) providing technical assistance to increase the number of programs delivering improved services to children and youth with deaf-blindness in the least restrictive environment; (3) facilitating parental involvement in the education of their children and youth with deaf-blindness; and (4) identifying, certifying, and placing children on the Deaf-Blind Registry and tracking children and youth with deaf-blindness. The goals of the project were to establish improved instructional, administrative, and appraisal techniques leading to increased opportunities for education within the least restrictive environment; to increase family involvement; to create an effective tracking and certification system; and to establish a closer correlation between the Deaf-Blind Registry and state child counts. The result of this project was the establishment of improved techniques leading to increased opportunities for education within the least restrictive environment, greater family involvement, an effective tracking and certification system, and a closer correlation between Deaf-Blind registry and state child counts. Appendices contain a list of project activities, data charts, and evaluation instruments.

ERIC Accession Number: ED411647

Paraeducator: Not Just An Aide

Johnson, Marlene M.; Lasater, Mary W.; Fitzgerald, Mary M. Jornal of Staff Development; v18, n1, 6-11, Winter 1997
Available from UMI

This article, written by staff developers and authors of a paraeducator training curriculum, Paraeducators: LifeLines in the Classroom, offers a framework for planning ongoing staff development for pre-service paraeducators. It highlights essential content as the core information to be addressed, questions to design a needs assessment, as well as a recommended process for conducting staff development.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ586895

Paraprofessional Training Packet

Arkansas Department of Education, Special Education Section, State Education Building, C Room, 1054 Capital Mall, Little Rock, AK 72201; (501) 682-4221

The information in the packet addresses multicultural issues with sample activities in working with the LEP student. Included are legal aspects pertaining to the Americans with Disabilities Act, Rehabilitation 504 Act, IDEA Legislation, inclusion, and IEP requirements. A resource for paraprofessionals in the K-12 system.

Preparing Teachers For Cultural Diversity

A Symposium
Theory into Practice, v. 37 no2 (Spring 1998) p. 88-171

A special issue on preparing teachers for cultural diversity is presented. Articles discuss the enhancement of institutional capacity to address diversity issues in teacher education, teacher attributes necessary to provide a multicultural education, how novice teachers can develop broader and more complex perspectives on social issues and action, institutional support for diversity in pre-service teacher education, the recruitment and preparation of paraprofessional people of color for a teaching career, the attempt by the University of New Mexico's pre-service teacher education program to construct a critical perspective toward a better understanding of both the school and the home and community, the use of case studies in the preparation of teachers for cultural diversity, the attempt by the New College of California's teacher education program to empower new teachers to meet the challenges of education in culturally diverse communities, two cultural immersion projects offered at Indiana University-Bloomington, and design principles for good practice in multicultural pre-service teacher education.

Profiles In Collaboration

Chapter 4: Kansas Project Partnership: A State Systems Change Approach to Improving Teacher Development
P. Jeannie Kleinhammer-Trammil, James J. Trammil, Fran E. OâReilly, and Phyllis M. Kelly, Kansas Project Partnership (KPP), Kansas State Board of Education
Technical Assistance Center for Professional Development Partnerships, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC, February 1998; call (202) 884-8000 or download from website

The KPP project focuses on systemic change. In order to bring IHEâs in line with new sate license and certification requirements for both general and special educators, KPP facilitated updating and improving preservice education programs. It awarded subgrants to IHEâs in Kansas and also offered mini-grants to members of a multi-state consortium.

Project Para: Establishing Paraprofessional Preservice Training Programs Through Cooperative Efforts With Local Education Agencies

Stanley F. Vasa, Allen Steckelberg, and Mary Koenig Goyette
The Paraprofessional Preservice Training Project, Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders, Teachers College, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 318 Barkley Memorial Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0738; (402) 472-5494

The projectâs training program for paraeducators emphasizes coordination with local schools, active involvement of paraeducators, and accountability for defined outcomes. Provides competencies in instructional techniques, behavior management, confidentiality and ethical behaviors, collaboration and teaming skills, classroom organization and management, special education policies and terminology, monitoring and reporting student progress, and roles of paraeducators in special education programs. Self-study materials available at

Project Together: Family Child Care Providers' Commitment To Continuing Education And Inclusion

Giovinazzo, Christina; Cook, David
Infants and Young Children; v8 n2 p26-36 Oct 1995
Available from UMI

This article describes a comprehensive, credentialed training program for family child-care providers that is family-centered, community-based, and focuses on developmentally appropriate practices for all children, including those with disabilities. The development of and rationale for this program are discussed, and a description of field test activities and outcomes is provided.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ511793

Promise Seen In Patchwork Of Para-To-Teacher Programs

Ponessa, Jeanne
Education Week, v. 15 (Apr. 3 1996) p. 7

Programs, such as the Urban Paraprofessional Teacher Preparation Program at Cambridge College in Massachusetts, not only provide school aides with the opportunity to become teachers but also help direct members of minority groups into a profession that needs diversity. Paraprofessionals who want to become teachers have been found to be usually older, have wider classroom experience, and be less likely to leave teaching.

Recognizing Cultural Difference In The Classroiom

Training Module III: National Origin Desegregation
Intercultural Development Research Association, 5835 Callaghan Road, Suite 350, San Antonio, TX 78228; (210) 684-8180; $8.50

Text explores various cultural dimensions including surface, culture, folklore, order of authority, patriotic/religious holidays, folk tales, and elements of deep culture. Addresses LEP students and a variety of cultures within the education system. Does not address the special needs learner nor language acquisition skills.

Report Of The Consortium Of Organizations On The Preparation And Use Of Speech-Language Paraprofessionals In Early Intervention And Education Settings

Journal of Children's Communication Development; v18 n1 p31-55 Spr-Sum 1997 (ERIC Accession Number: EJ550630)
Also: Council for Exceptional Children, 1920 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191; 57 pp.

This report presents the conclusions of a consortium of organizations on the development of a framework for the appropriate preparation, use, and supervision of paraprofessionals in the delivery of speech and language services in early intervention and educational settings for children with communication disorders. The framework establishes three levels of paraprofessionals, with job titles such as aide, assistant, and associate, all working under the supervision of a licensed/certified speech language pathologist. Provided for each level is information on the nature of the role and its responsibilities, the education and training needed, and the degree of supervision required by individuals in that role. The framework also specifies the additional knowledge and skills needed by the speech-language pathologist to adequately supervise and use the various levels of paraprofessional personnel in a comprehensive service system. Also specifically identified are those activities that should remain outside the scope of responsibilities of a paraprofessional in speech-language pathology. Attached is a detailed matrix listing the roles and responsibilities, needed competencies/skills, and needed knowledge for each of the three paraprofessional levels.

ERIC Accession Number: ED406788

Starting Today: Steps To Success For Beginning Bilingual Educators

Intercultural Development Research Association, 5835 Callaghan Road, Suite 350, San Antonio, TX 78228; (210) 684-8180

The material addresses all areas that contribute to the success of learners. The learning process, including homework, is outlined by spelling out the responsibility of teacher, student, and parent. Focuses on the Spanish-speaking population, providing many commonly used classroom phrases in English and Spanish. The techniques could be adapted for use with other students who are LEP. Extensively describes learning styles, self-esteem issues, peer interaction while providing a holistic approach. For paraprofessionals, teachers, and administrators in the K-12 system.

Skill Standards For Paraeducators

Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Skill Standards Project
Paraeducator Skill Standard Consortium with project management provided by Walla Walla Community College

Skill standards are performance specifications that identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities that an individual needs to succeed in the workplace. They also answer the question, ãHow do we know when workers are performing well?ä Prepared to generate interest in the field as a career choice, provide information to college faculty to prepare paraeducator students for successful performance in schools, assist high school teachers and counselors to better advise students preparing for careers as paraeducators. Goal is to specify the critical work functions, key activities, performance indicators and knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to succeed as a paraeducator in a general, special education, or bilingual/ESL educational setting.

Teaching Content: Esl Strategiesfor Classroom Teachers

Intercultural Development Research Association, 5835 Callaghan Road, Suite 350, Suite, San Antonio, TX 78228; (210) 684-8180; $8.50

This training manual presents a variety of exercises geared toward cognitive, social, and experiential learning. Exercises explore the different ways of learning English as a second language. Provides ã20 Tips for Teachers of Language-Minority Students.ä Incorporates cooperative learning, using as many visual cues as possible, making use of all senses, and increasing student response time. Especially useful for paraprofessionals working with LEP students.

Technical Assistance Guide For Community College Administrators And Program Coordinators

Kent, Carol; and others
Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI. Developmental Disabilities Inst., 1996, 40 p.

This guide provides information and guidelines to community college personnel who are administering and coordinating programs designed to prepare paraprofessionals to work with individuals with developmental disabilities in community settings. The guide is specifically for individuals managing the "Paraprofessional Curriculum for Community Inclusion" program offered at Michigan community colleges. The guide describes the Community College Initiative developed by Wayne State University's Developmental Disabilities Institute, especially its features of systems change, student diversity, a values-based curriculum, academic skill development, and career path development. The guide outlines the importance of "person first" language, program needs assessment, community linkages, program certification, staffing, disability support, and job placement. A chapter on curriculum development focuses on the core curriculum which stresses seeing people first (not their disability), viewing historical perspectives, understanding individuals' special needs, the human service delivery system, rights and advocacy, field work, areas of specialization and employment, and transfer to four-year institutions. A chapter on program administration addresses staffing the program (hiring qualified faculty and supporting and retaining faculty), student recruitment, and other program issues. A list of products developed by the Community College Initiative is appended. (Contains 10 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED403713

The Training And Support Needs Of Paraprofessionals In Rural Special Education

Passaro, Perry D, Pickett, Anna Lou, Lathem, G., and Wang, H.B.
Rural Special Education Quarterly; v13 n4 p3-9 Fall 1994

Two surveys of rural paraprofessionals, teachers, and administrators in special education identified paraprofessionals' perceived training and support needs, current training requirements for special education paraprofessionals, and effective methods of providing training in rural areas. Results encompass demographics, extent and quality of supervision, retention issues, previous training, and training needs. Bar graphs detail paraprofessional and supervisor ratings of paraprofessional competencies.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ495401

Training Interpreter Paraprofessionals To Assist In The Language Assessment Of English Language Learners In Utah

Yoakum, Susie; Manuel Dupont, Sonia
Journal of Children's Communication Development; v18 n1 p91-101 Spr-Sum 1997

Describes development of an interpreter paraprofessional (IP) program by Utah State University and Granite (Utah) school district in response to the unavailability of certified interpreters to assist in special education assessment of students who are English Language Learners. Stresses the importance of providing IPs with job-relevant training, field practice, and team-building experiences with professional personnel.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550634

Transition: The Role Of The Paraprofessional

Module Seven. Facilitator's Edition [and] Student's Edition
Strategies for Paraprofessionals Who Support Individuals with Disabilities Series
Krawetz, Nancy, Comp.
Hutchinson Technical Coll., MN.; Minnesota State Board of Technical Colleges, St. Paul.; Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Inst. on Community Integration, 1995
University of Minnesota, The Institute on Community Integration (UAP), 150 Pillsbury Drive, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 ($25 facilitator edition; $15 student edition), 363 p.; For other modules, see EC 304 986-991.

The seventh in a series of federally supported modules for training paraprofessional school personnel working with students with disabilities, this module presents information on assisting individuals with disabilities in their transition from school to adult life. Both a facilitator's edition and a student's edition are provided. Chapter 1 discusses transition and the transition team. Chapter 2 provides information on interagency collaboration. The roles and responsibilities of paraprofessionals are examined in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 presents effective communication and problem-solving strategies. Student assessment and goal setting are discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 focuses on student and family involvement in transition planning. Chapter 7 explores the transition to employment. Choosing a home living arrangement and supporting students as they learn home living skills are reviewed in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 explores the transition to post-secondary education. Chapters 10 and 11 discuss fostering community involvement and planning for recreation and leisure options. Five appendices provide additional information on the Individualized Education Plan, disability-related legislation, transition assessment, personal futures planning, and transition resources. The facilitator's edition offers learning activities and information sheets to be used as transparencies. (Contains 14 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED398700

A University-School District Collaborative Project For Preparing Paraprofessionals To Become Special Educators

Epanchin, Betty C.; Wooley-Brown, Cathy
Teacher Education and Special Education; v16 n2 p110-23 Spring 1993

This paper describes a collaborative project of Polk County (Florida) public schools and the University of South Florida, which prepares paraprofessionals to become special education teachers. Successful implementation of the project has required overcoming histories of mistrust, establishing an agenda that addresses mutual needs, clarifying roles and responsibilities, and developing mechanisms for accomplishing the work..

ERIC Accession Number: EJ472692

Utilization And Training Of Speech-Language Pathology Support Personnel To Enhance Services For Preschool Children

Pillow, Gary L.
Ed.D. Practicum, Nova Southeastern University, 1996, 28 pp.

This practicum involved the development and delivery of a three semester hour community college course for five speech-language pathology (SLP) support personnel assisting in a preschool setting. The practicum addressed the specific problem that support personnel did not demonstrate independent and effective instructional strategies when implementing the speech-language pathologist's plan. The course was designed to provide an overview from all areas of study recommended for a full SLP assistant curriculum. Topics covered included sign language; the manual alphabet; principles of linguistic phonetics; the three systems of speech production (respiratory, laryngeal, and supralaryngeal); the phonetic alphabet; anatomy and physiology of the speech mechanism and the auditory system; normal stages of language acquisition; child speech and language disorders; principles of phonology; types of augmentative and alternative communication devices and programs; clinical methods in speech pathology; basic principles of audiology; aural rehabilitation techniques; and central auditory processing disorders. Evaluation suggested that the support personnel demonstrated an understanding of the phonetic alphabet, improved understanding of the professional vocabulary used by the speech-language pathologists, a beginning sign language proficiency, and basic knowledge of speech-language and hearing services. Appendices include the evaluation survey and a listing of topics covered in the course. (Contains 12 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED401664

Validating The Student's Culture In The Classroom

Facilitator's Manual with Video

Intercultural Development Research Association, 5835 Callaghan Road, Suite 350, Suite, San Antonio, TX 78228; (210) 684-8180; $8.50 for manual; $49.50 for video

Material focuses on valuing each studentâs cultural diversity. Recognizes that program effectiveness will be enhanced with an increased parental involvement. Much emphasis is placed on the family and school relationship. Shows that the self-esteem of the students will increase as the educators become aware of culturally diverse needs.

Paraeducator Roles and Responsibilities

Linking Low-Income Families To Children's Mental Health Services: An Outcome Study

Koroloff, Nancy M.; and others
Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders; v4 n1 p2-11 Jan 1996
Available from UMI

An intervention designed to address barriers to access to children's mental health services for low-income families was implemented in three Oregon counties. Paraprofessionals provided families with information, emotional support, and tangible assistance. Families in the intervention group (n=96) were significantly more likely to initiate children's mental health services than families in the comparison group (n=143).

ERIC Accession Number: EJ518054

Notetaking Programs: Starting Out Right!

Yarger, Carmel Collum
Perspectives in Education and Deafness; v15 n1 p6-8,20-21 Sep 1996

Describes the roles and responsibilities of notetaking paraprofessionals in assisting students with hearing impairments. Guidelines are provided for initiating a notetaking program, including how to facilitate timely distribution of notes, organize notes, choose notetaking materials, establish work areas in each classroom, and foster student independence.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ544397

Roles For Education Paraprofessionals In Effective Schools: An Idea Book

Leighton, Mary S.; O'Brien, Eileen; Walking Eagle, Karen; Weiner, Lisa; Wimberly, George; Youngs, Peter
Policy Studies Associates, Inc., Washington, DC., 120 pp., 1997

Educational paraprofessionals can provide strong, multidimensional support for students' academic success. The first part of this book presents information on roles for education paraprofessionals in effective schools, focusing on the history of paraprofessionals as multifaceted members of the schools staff, the work of paraprofessionals, how to assess whether paraprofessionals can help, and elements of good paraprofessional practice. The second part offers an overview of 15 effective programs nationwide that employ paraprofessionals. The programs include: early childhood education, Title I instruction, Head Start, parent participation, school employee effectiveness training, site-based management, career development, and bilingual pupil services. The third part of the book profiles the 15 effective programs in detail. The three appendixes present listings of paraprofessional job titles and descriptions, profile sites and contacts, and information on Federal student aid programs. (Contains 25 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED413317

Team Approach To School Counseling: Rationale For The Use Of Paraprofessionals

McCollum, Vivian J. Carroll

15 pp., 1996

School counselors' duties have multiplied over the years, requiring counselors to be involved with nearly every aspect of school operation. Ways in which paraprofessionals can help school counselors meet these demands are described in this paper. Counselors must provide crisis intervention, group and individual counseling, classroom guidance, consultation with other school staff and parents, coordination of community activities, scheduling, record keeping, and a host of other services. Many of these tasks, it is suggested, can be completed by a trained paraprofessional, leaving the counselor available to deal with the increasing numbers of intervention-seeking students. These paraprofessionals, who are trained or skilled in human services, work alongside the professional counselor, serving as guidance aides, clerical aides, and coordination aides. Such duties can then free counselors to fulfill their primary duties, such as the counseling function, the consultation function, and the coordination function, in which they act as a liaison between school and community agencies. Some guidelines for implementing a counselor/paraprofessional relationship are offered. School counselors are advised to persuade administrators that a team approach to counseling can result in more effective service.

ERIC Accession Number: ED412478

Paraeducator Supervision

A Case Study Of A Speech-Language Pathologist's Supervision Of Assistants In A School Setting: Tracy's Story

French, Nancy K.
Journal of Children's Communication Development; v18 n1 p103-09 Spring-Summer 1997

This case study describes the experiences of a newly graduated speech-language pathologist working in a small urban school district with a series of speech-language assistants who have various levels of qualifications and personality types. It illustrates how professional supervision skills, preservice paraprofessional training, professional/paraprofessional role distinctions, hiring practices, pay, and working conditions influence and affect the use of paraprofessionals.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550635

Colleagues In The Classroom

A Video-Assisted Program for Teaching Supervision Skills
220 pp. text and 6 videotapes plus materials
Technology, Research, and Innovation in Special Education (TRI-SPED)
Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation
Utah State University
Logan, Utah 84322-2865
(877) 722-3991; web site

Designed to provide teachers with practical skills necessary to work with paraeducators. Addresses skills related to supervision, team building, and development of positive, goal-directed partnerships within the classroom team. Teachers can participate in the training program by working in small groups or teachers and paraeducators can participate together. Can be used as in-service training or as a graduate-level seminar. Addresses topics such as developing a teacherâs leadership role, clarifying roles and responsibilities, strengthening interpersonal communication, pre-empting or solving supervision problems, building a classroom team, and evaluating staff performance. Can be completed in 25-40 hours. Can be used with companion program, Enhancing Skills of Paraeducators (Salzberg, Morgan, Gassman, Merrill, and Pickett, 1993).

A Consultation And Paraprofessional Pull-In System Of Service Delivery: A Report On Student Outcomes And Teacher Satisfaction

Welch, Marshall; and others
Remedial and Special Education; v16 n1 p16-28 Jan 1995
>Available from UMI

This article presents results of evaluation of an educational partnership approach, the Consultation and Paraprofessional Pull-In System (CAPPS), for serving at-risk students and those with mild academic disabilities. The program synthesizes the resource/consulting teacher role, pull-in programming, and utilization of paraprofessionals for service delivery. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation findings are detailed.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ497554

Impact Of Teacher Education Courses On Paraprofessionals' Job Performance, Knowledge, And Goals

Gittman, Elizabeth; Berger, Randie
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Educational Research Association, 15 pp., October 22, 1997

A four-year private suburban college and a city public school district collaboratively provided teacher education courses to paraprofessionals working with special needs students in general education classes. The two teacher education courses, offered on the school district's premises, were Teaching, Learning, and Growth and Instructional Strategies and Classroom Management. A group of 28 teachers and administrators responded to a questionnaire about the job performance of 26 paraprofessionals who completed the courses, and 22 paraprofessionals who finished the courses also completed a questionnaire. The teacher/administrator questionnaire asked about their current position in the school, years of experience, awareness of the paraprofessional's enrollment in the course, and beliefs about change in the paraprofessional's behaviors related to working with students with disabilities. The paraprofessional questionnaire asked about educational background, current position, experience, and beliefs about course effectiveness and impact. In an essay, paraprofessionals discussed whether or not they responded differently to student behavior following the course. Results indicated that course participants had improved job performance and greater knowledge of course content and their occupational roles in the classroom. Participants believed they understood and responded to student behavior more appropriately since taking the courses. Many indicated an intention to continue college level study and pursue a career in teaching.

ERIC Accession Number: ED416186

Organizing For Effective Paraprofessional Services In Special Education

Miramontes, Ofelia B
Remedial and Special Education, v. 12 (Jan./Feb. 1991) p. 29-36+
A multilingual/multiethnic instructional service team model.

The Paraeducator And Teacher Team

Strategies for Success (six workbooks)
Kent Gerlach
Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA

Pacific Lutheran University Bookstore, Attn: Mark Stevens, 121st Park Avenue, Tacoma, Washington 98447; telephone 253-535-7666; fax 253-536-5029; $15 each plus $1.50 each for postage and handling

This training program is designed to provide administrators, teachers, and paraeducators with the knowledge and skills necessary to better utilize paraeducators in the classroom and to strengthen the paraeducator-teacher team. The participant workbooks are as follows: 1) Roles, Responsibilities, and Ethical Issues; 2) Communication and Team Building; 3) Time Management for Teams; 4) Behavior Management; 5) Reading for Success; and 6) Effective Instruction. Each includes exercises, worksheets, checklists, guidelines, readings, and other practical approaches to building the team.Ê The workbooks are compiled in ring binders so that the pages can be removed for photocopying.

Peer Coaching Within An Early Childhood Interdisciplinary Setting

Miller, Susan Peterson
Intervention in School and Clinic, v. 30 (Nov. 1994) p. 109-13

The writer discusses the establishment of coaching partnerships across disciplines in an early childhood setting. Peer coaching is the assistance that one teacher provides to another in the development of teaching skills, strategies, or techniques. A special education teacher, a paraprofessional, and a social work graduate-school intern agreed to teach in a pilot early childhood program for children at risk in special education services. The program director provided them with a one-hour in-service on peer coaching, discussed the rationale for peer coaching, discussed ways to implement peer coaching strategies, conducted several 15-minute observations of the participants, and then initiated the first coaching session. The participants agreed to coach and cue one another just before the start of a class and to give verbal feedback on the peer's performance after the class. Results reveal that the formal coaching session and the subsequent informal peer coaching session were effective for improving teacher performance.

Supervising Paraeducators In School Settings

A Team Approach
Anna Lou Pickett and Kent Gerlach, editors, 279 pp., 1997
Pro-Ed, 8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard, Austin, Texas 78757-6897
Order No. 8367, $29 plus shipping (U.S. 10%, Canada 15%, Foreign 20%)
(800) 897-3202

Teachers and related services personnel are increasingly becoming responsible for supervising paraeducators and other support staff. This text contains practical information and activities for preparing teachers, speech-language pathologists, occupational and physical therapists, and administrators to work effectively with paraeducators in schools. Guidelines and strategies for improving the performance, management, staff development, and professional advancement opportunities for paraeducators and provided. Chapters: (1) Paraeducators in School Settings: Framing the Issues (Pickett); (2) Team Roles in Instructional Settings (Lynn Safarik); (3) Team Roles in Therapy Services (Thomas M. Longhurst); (4) Management of Paraeducators (Nancy K. French); (5) Team Building: Communication and Problem Solving (Gerlach and Patty Lee); (6) Professional and Ethical Responsibilities of Team Members (William Heller); (7) Paraeducators in School Settings: Administrative Issues (Stan Vasa and Allen Steckelberg); (8) Paraeducators in School Settings: The Future (Pickett and Gerlach).

Supervisory Training For Teachers: Multiple, Long-Term Effects In An Education Program For Adults With Severe Disabilities

Jensen, Joyce M; Parsons, Marsha B; Reid, Dennis H
Research in Developmental Disabilities, v. 19 no. 6 (Nov./Dec. 1998) p. 449-63

We evaluated a means of training special education teachers in supervisory strategies for improving specific teaching-related performances of their paraprofessional, teacher assistants. Using classroom-based instruction and on-the-job monitoring and feedback, seven teachers were trained to systematically observe the data collection and teaching performances of their assistants as well as to provide contingent feedback. The supervisory training for teachers, evaluated using a multiple-probe design across groups of assistants, was accompanied by improvements in data collection performances among seven of eight assistants. Improvement in other teaching skill applications also occurred. The improved performance among the assistants was maintained across a 17-month follow-up period. The supervisory training seemed to have multiple benefits in that the teachers' own teaching-related performances improved once teachers were trained to systematically observe and provide feedback to their assistants. The need for continued research is discussed to evaluate the benefits of supervisory training to improve and maintain other important areas of staff performance.

Teacher And Paraprofessional Relationship

Palma, Gloria M.
Rural Special Education Quarterly; v13 n4 p46-48 Fall 1994

Discusses importance of paraprofessionals in rural special education. Suggests that positive teacher-paraprofessional relationships are obtained through valuing each other's respective roles; giving credit where due; involving paraprofessionals in planning and decision making; showing paraprofessionals the why as well as the how of lessons; providing instructions using we and us, instead of you; providing verbal and nonverbal feedback.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ495406

Paraeducator Training Materials

Advanced Skills Of Specialists In Employment Training (ASSET)

Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services, Utah State University, 1996; 6 VHS tapes, 375 pp. Instructors manual, and 4 copies of 320-page specialistâs workbook ($375)

Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-2865; (801) 797-2329

A comprehensive, competency-based training program for entry-level supported employment specialists. Includes a manual for instructors, a workbook for specialists, and video material showing community jobs. The program can be delivered in brief workshops, a series of intense instructional sessions, or college courses. It emphasizes advancement of practical skills with exercises for specialists to apply procedures in work settings. Unit 1: Introduction to Supported Employment; Unit 2: Job Marketing and Development; Unit 3: Assessment Procedures; Unit 4: Job-Based Instructional Procedures; Unit 5: Behavioral Intervention Procedures.

Before The Bell Rings: What Every Paraeducator Should Know

Agency for Instructional Technology, Customer Service Department, Box A, Bloomington, IN 47402-0210; 1996; 6-part video and facilitators guide ($295); 1-800-457-4509

A video and print workshop resource to prepare education teams to implement ongoing professional development programs for paraeducators in pre-school, elementary, and secondary education. Train paraeducators to communicate more effectively with teachers, administrators, parents, and students. Define the roles and responsibilities of paraeducators, especially in relation to the education team. Develop paraeducators problem-solving and behavior management techniques. Prepare paraeducators to actively practice your districtâs professional and ethical standards of conduct. Guide includes workshop agendas, overhead masters, follow-up activities to each part of video, and listings of additional resources.

Beyond The Sandbox: Teaching Assistants In Early Childhood Education

Indiana Preschool Initiative, Center for Innovative Practices for Young Children, Institute for the Study of Developmental Disabilities and the Indiana Department of Education, Division of Special Education

ISDD, Attn: CeDIR, 2853 E. 10th St., Bloomington, IN 47408-2601 or fax to (812) 855-9630; $25 plus $3.75 shipping and handling

Videotape demonstrates the valuable role of teaching assistants; initiates dialogue about specific situations covered in video; helps administrators understand the changing role of teaching assistants; helps parents better understand the importance of teaching assistants and their link between family, teacher, and child.

Bilingual Special Education Training Of Trainers Institute

Bueno Center For Multicultural Education, Campus Box 249, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0249

Training Modules include: Cultural Pluralism and Exceptionality, Cross-cultural Language Acquisition and Communication, Second Language Acquisition, Communication and Learning, Collaboration in the Mainstream, Classroom Management and Curriculum Development, Cognitive Learning Styles and Strategies, and Adapting Instruction for Diverse Learners.

Crossroads Cafe: An Esol Program For Adult Leanrers

Formative Evaluation Study

Seymour Spiegel, Project Director, and Irene C. Rayman, Evaluation Analyst; CASE Report #01-97

Center for Advanced Study in Education, 365 Fifth Avenue, Suite 3300, New York, NY 10016; 36 pp.; 1997

Findings of a formative evaluation of Crossroads Cafe, an ESOL Adult Learning Program, a distance learning adult level video program designed to teach English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL). The research focused on how 22 programs were implemented in 6 different regions of New York State- what worked, what didn't, and why. The program is designed to teach English to adult learners working independently without an instructor present. It is targeted to individuals who are literate in their native language and who have some proficiency in writing and speaking English. The main component of the learning program is a series of 26 half-hour episodes about six ethnically diverse characters whose lives intersect at Crossroads Cafe, a neighborhood restaurant. Collateral work units support the videos with exercises designed to develop story comprehension, language skills, and higher order thinking. Two resource books are also available to teachers. A Partner Guide offers suggestions and reproducible masters for an English proficient non-professional friend and family member who can guide the learner in his or her study of English.

Early Childhood: The Role Of The Paraprofessional

Module Five. Facilitator's Edition [and] Student's Edition. Strategies for Paraprofessionals Who Support Individuals with Disabilities Series

Rush, Karen

Hutchinson Technical Coll., MN; Minnesota State Board of Technical Colleges, St. Paul; Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Institute on Community Integration, 1995, 347 pp.

University of Minnesota, The Institute on Community Integration (UAP), 150 Pillsbury Drive, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 ($25 facilitator edition; $15 student edition)

The fifth in a series of federally supported modules for training paraprofessional school personnel who work with students with disabilities, this module focuses on early childhood education needs of children with disabilities. Both a facilitator's edition and a student's edition are provided. Chapter 1 presents material on fundamentals and legal foundations of early intervention and the roles and responsibilities of paraprofessionals. Chapter 2 describes the basic principles of child development and developmental domains. Individualized Education Plans, the assessment of the child and family, and development of instructional goals and objectives are discussed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the classroom, with information on appropriate practices, instructional techniques, and monitoring progress. The needs of families are evaluated in Chapter 5, which examines working with families, the development of cross-cultural competence, community integration, and the paraprofessional's role. Seven appendices include: a handout on accessible child care, a listing of model learner outcomes, a sample Individualized Education Plan form, an Individualized Family Service Plan form, articles on behavior management, a play checklist, and a family needs survey. The facilitator's edition offers learning activities and information sheets to be used as transparencies. (Contains 22 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED398698

A Core Curriculum &Amp; Training Program To Prepare Paraeducators To Work In Center &Amp; Home Based Programs For Young Children With Disabilities From Birth To Age Five

Pickett, Anna Lou; Faison, Karen; Formanek, John; and Semrau, Barbara

Center for Advanced Study in Education, City University of New York, NY, 1999, second edition, 228 pp.

These instructional materials are designed to provide personnel developers and trainers with resources that can be used to improve the performance of paraeducators working in center-based and home visitor programs for young children with disabilities from birth to age 5. The modules cover: (1) roles of paraeducators working in inclusive environments for young children; (2) communication and team-building skills; (3) human and legal rights of children and youth with disabilities and their families; (4) human development; (5) the instructional process (individualized education and family services plans, assessment, data collection, goals and objectives, instructional interventions, and facilitating inclusion using developmentally appropriate activities); (6) working with families; (7) appreciating diversity; and (8) emergency, health, and safety procedures. The format for the instructional modules includes: instructional objectives, equipment and resources required, suggested training activities and exercises, background information for the trainer, and handouts and transparencies. Training procedures involve small group discussions, brainstorming, problem solving, case studies, and role plays. (References accompany each module.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED366142

A Core Curriculum &Amp; Training Program To Prepare Paraeducators To Work In Inclusive Classrooms Serving School Age Students With Disabilities

Pickett, Anna Lou; Faison, Karen; and Formanek, John

Center for Advanced Study in Education, City University of New York, NY, 1999, second edition, 210 pp.

These instructional materials are designed to improve the performance of paraeducators working with school-age students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. The modules cover: (1) roles of paraeducators working in inclusive classrooms; (2) communication and team-building skills; (3) human and legal rights of children and youth with disabilities and their families; (4) human development; (5) the instructional process (individualized education plans, assessment, data collection, goals and objectives, instructional interventions, strategies for tutoring and reinforcing lessons, teaching reading, teaching arithmetic and mathematics, and teaching language arts); (6) appreciating diversity; and (7) emergency, health, and safety procedures. The format for the instructional modules includes: instructional objectives, equipment and resources required, suggested training activities and exercises, background information for the trainer, and handouts and transparencies. Training procedures involve small group discussions, brainstorming, problem solving, case studies, and role plays. (References accompany each module.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED366141

Core Curriculum To Prepare Paraprofessionals To Work With English Language Learners


A Core Curriculum &Amp; Training Program To Prepare Paraeducators To Work In Transitional Services And Supported Employment Programs

Pickett, Anna Lou; Faison, Karen; Formanek, John; and Wood, James

Center for Advanced Study in Education, City University of New York, NY, 1999, second edition, 209 pp.

These instructional materials are designed to improve the performance of paraeducators working in transitional services and supported employment for teenagers and young adults with disabilities. The competency-based program helps participants to learn skills they can apply immediately, to accept new practices, and to increase their understanding of education issues. The modules cover: (1) roles of paraeducators working in transitional and vocational services; (2) communication and team-building skills; (3) human and legal rights of children and youth with disabilities and their families; (4) human development; (5) the instructional process (individualized education and transition plans, assessment, data collection, goals and objectives, and instructional interventions); (6) working with families; (7) appreciating diversity; and (8) emergency, health, and safety procedures. The format for the instructional modules includes: instructional objectives, equipment and resources required, suggested training activities and exercises, background information for the trainer, and handouts and transparencies. Training procedures involve small group discussions, brainstorming, problem solving, case studies, and role plays. (References accompany each module.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED366140

Enhancing Skills of Paraeducators: A Video-Assisted Program Second Edition

Robert L. Morgan, David E. Forbush, Deanna Avis

Available through TRI-SPED (Technology, Research, and Innovation in
Special Education, Utah State University, 6523 Old Main, Logan, UT
84322-6523. Toll-free at 1-877-722-3991.

Now in its second edition, Enhancing Skills of Paraeducators (ESP 2) is a comprehensive, competency-based, field-tested curriculum for paraeducators and includes a 300-page manual, 73 video exercises (3 hours of video), 5 knowledge tests, and 10 school-based application (skill) exercises. After reading assignments, individuals or groups of trainees watch video exercises of school situations and discuss how to respond. Then, trainees carry out application assignments in school settings. Topics include communicating with students who have special needs, behavior intervention, behavior assessment, communicating with teachers and IEP Team members, using assertive communication, understanding issues faced by families and persons from other cultures or ethnic backgrounds, clarifying roles and responsibilities, paraeducator roles in the IEP, student assessment, and classroom management, assistive technology, record keeping, IDEA, Title I, Section 504, FERPA, ADA, ethical standards, professional conduct, and knowledge and skills required of paraeducators. Video material also includes interviews with a student who is blind, a student who is deaf, a student who uses a communication board, and three families who have a child with special needs. A facilitator's guide provides guidance, ideas, and resources for instructors. Six manuals, five videos, and the facilitator's guide are available for $395.

Expanding Traditional Roles In Vocational Work Experience Programs

A Course for Preparation of Paraeducators

Pat Haley, Chuck Steury, and Gail Westlin

CRDC Publications, Attn: V. Klum, PO Box 574, Portland, OR 97207; $25; 1993

Focuses on upgrading skills of paraeducators working with special needs students in vocational settings. The manual features: Nine broad competency training areas; over 30 relevant, motivating, field-tested activities; pages ready to be made into transparencies; suggested training schedule; bibliography of related services and materials.

Handbook For The Care Of Infants, Toddlers, And Young Children With Disabilities And Chronic Conditions

Karajicek, Marilyn; Steinke, Geraldine; Hertzberg, Dalice L.; Anastasiow, Nicholas; and Sandall, Susan, editors; 446 pp.; 1997

Pro-Ed, 8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard, Austin, Texas 78757-6897; order no. 8376

Offered by the First Start Program to help early childhood personnel "to see the child before the disability." Faculty and consultants in child care, health, education, and early intervention describe chronic conditions and illnesses among children with disabilities. Organized into: Human Development, Chronic Conditions, Care Needs, and Communication and Community Support. Major conditions are explained, followed by descriptions of related special needs and guidance toward achieving best-practice recommendations for meeting them. Can also be used as a ready reference. Includes extensive bibliography and glossary.

The Hanen Program For Early Childhood Educators: Inservice Training For Child Care Providers On How To Facilitate Children's Social, Language, And Literacy Development

Weitzman, Elaine

Infant Toddler Intervention: The Transdisciplinary Journal; v4 n3 p173-202 Sep 1994

The Hanen Program for Early Childhood Educators provides caregivers in child care centers with on-site training in facilitating children's social, language, and literacy development. The program is conducted by a speech-language pathologist and consists of seven group training sessions and six individual videotaping sessions with feedback. A case study illustrates the program's effectiveness.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ491063

An Innovative Model For Training Orientation And Mobility Assistants

Wiener, W.R.

Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness; v87 n5 p134-37 May 1993

A model was developed to prepare specialists in orientation and mobility (O&M) who work with people with visual impairments, with the specialists in turn training and supervising O&M assistants. The project developed curriculum guidelines, training methods, a national workshop, and regional seminars.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ465475

Instructional Conversations: Understanding Through Discussion

The National Resource Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, video with resource book

Bilingual Research Center, UCSC, Social Science II, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064; $40; (408) 459-3351

This video was taped in a Southern California public school where students were transitioning into mainstream English. The style depicted and promoted in this video is referenced as "Instructional Conversation (I.C.)." This approach is noted for the importance of construction of knowledge as opposed to direct transmission of information from a teacher to a student. I.C.âs are comprised of ten elements, five instructional and five conversational. These components are: 1) thematic focus, 2) activation and use of background knowledge and relevant schemata, 3) direct teaching, 4) promotion of more complex language and expression, 5) elicitation of bases for statements or positions, 6) using few "known-answer" questions, 7) response to student contributions, 8) connected discourse, 9) a challenging, but non-threatening atmosphere, and 10) general participation, including self-selected turns.

Instructional Leadership For The Rural Special Educator: Final Report

Hofmeister, Alan M.; and others

Utah State Univ., Logan. Center for Persons with Disabilities, 1996, 61 pp.

This project addressed the need for training materials for paraeducators in their roles as members of the instructional team, and for teachers as classroom executives who lead that team. Paraprofessional personnel in this project include paid aides, volunteers, cross-age tutors, and parents instructing children in the schools. The three objectives of the project were: (1) training in effective teaching/instruction; (2) training for paraprofessionals; and (3) the executive functions of teaching. Formative and summative field tests in rural sites were conducted to ensure that effective, generalizable, and replicable training programs had been developed that were competency-based and field-based, and feasible within budget constraints. The project training materials and programs were designed to be easily exportable to district level, school sites, or individual classrooms. The materials, training activities and participants, facilitators, dissemination, and methodological issues are discussed in terms of project objectives. While the first year of the project was largely devoted to the development of materials, the subsequent 3 years saw training of 4,630 paraprofessionals and teachers. In addition to direct training of teachers and paraprofessionals, conferences and presentations were often attended by supervisors, state and district level administrators, and university personnel. Study data are included in tables. Appendices include Gantt Charts for the years of the study and sample forms from the training programs.

ERIC Accession Number: ED401264

Instructional Strategies For Crosscultural Students With Special Education Needs

Training Manual


Video Tape

Resources in Special Education, 650 Howe Av., Suite 300, Sacramento, CA 95825

The training manual is divided into three sections: a) understanding cross-cultural issues for the appropriate placement of culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional students in special education, b) instructional issues, and c) instructional strategies for use with the core curriculum in the special education classroom. The video tape covers use of alternative instructional techniques and student study teams for exceptional students from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds.

The Medically Fragile Child In The School Setting

A Resource Guide for the Educational Team

American Federation of Teachers; 34 pp. plus appendices; 1992

AFT, 555 New Jersey Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20001; item #451; $1.50 for members, $5.00 for non-members

Produced by the AFT's Ad Hoc Committee on Health Care Responsibilities in Special Education. Contains research on medically fragile children in schools. Designed to educate AFT members on their roles and responsibilities with students and their rights as employees. It outlines possible solutions and protections for local unions to pursue on behalf of their members.

Missouri-Tikes: Training Individuals To Care For Exceptional Children Outreach Project

Final Report

Busch, Robert F.

Missouri Univ., Columbia, 1996, 82 pp.

This final report describes activities and accomplishments of the M-TIKES (Missouri-Training Individuals to Care for Exceptional Students) Outreach Project, which used a "train-the-trainer" model to increase the number of child care providers trained to integrate children with and without disabilities. The project's major objectives were to provide child caregivers with information needed to mainstream children with disabilities into child care settings and to increase child caregivers' knowledge about child development and appropriate adaptations for children with disabilities. The project's curriculum consists of an inservice training component and an on-site collaboration and consultation component. A nine-part videotape series was also developed. The project resulted in the training of 265 child caregivers, an increase in the number of childcare facilities accepting preschool children with disabilities, a replicable inservice training model, and curriculum materials. Individual sections of the report cover the following aspects of the project: goals, philosophy, description of model and participants, research, method, measures, results, and impact. Appendices include a description of each videotape, the needs assessment form, a sample training agenda, a listing of sites and facilitators trained, an inservice evaluation scale, and a form for observing caregiver behavior. (Contains 23 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED392220

Multicultural Perspectives In The Classroom: Professional Preparation For Educational Paraprofessionals

Harper, Victoria

Action in Teacher Education; v16 n3 p66-78 Fall 1994

Theme issue title: "Celebrating Diversity in Teacher Education"

Available from UMI

Paraprofessionals often represent the closest linking of language and culture between communities and schools, taking the lead in teaching second-language learners. Their lack of professional education can create situations where the neediest children are served by the least prepared adults. The article suggests a professional career ladder for paraprofessionals.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ498432

North Dakota's Rural Training Projects: Past, Present And Future

Vassiliou, Demetrios; Johnson, Dave

In: Reaching to the Future: Boldly Facing Challenges in Rural Communities. Conference Proceedings of the American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) (Las Vegas, Nevada, March 15-18, 1995); see RC 020 016, 9 pp., 1995

This paper describes the North Dakota Statewide Mental Retardation/Developmental Disabilities Facility Staff Training Program. For the past 10 years, the training program, in association with Minot State University, has been available to agencies and their employees who provide services to individuals with developmental disabilities in rural areas. Full-time direct service staff are required to demonstrate knowledge and skills in topic areas addressed in 14 training modules. These skills are taught at provider sites by certified regional trainers. In addition to entry level certification, the program offers advanced certification, an associate of arts degree in developmental disabilities, a bachelor of science degree in mental retardation (non-teaching), and a master of science degree in special education. In October 1992, the North Dakota Center for Disabilities (NDCD) expanded the program to address the increasing demand for paraeducators, particularly in rural areas. In the project's first year, four pilot sites were selected and curriculum development was initiated. The second year saw an additional 14 special education units brought into the program, with the remaining 13 units joining in the third year. Areas of training were developed according to the surveyed needs of program participants and consist of initial and advanced levels of certification. Training modules can be presented through large group instruction, small group format, on-the-job demonstrations, or self-instruction. Participant competencies are evaluated through pretests/posttests that accompany each training module. As federal funding ends, the NDCD has been actively seeking ways to preserve the program.

Orientation Level Training For Paraeducators In Lifting, Transferring And Positioning (1999)
Orientation Level Training For Paraeducators Working With Students With Special Health Care Needs (1998)
Orientation Level Training For School Employees Who Administer Oral Medications To Students (1999)

Paraeducator Project, Washington Education Association

Washington Education Association, 33434 8th Avenue, Federal Way, WA 98003

Manuals are intended as a resource for paraeducators upon completion of the Orientation Level Training, not a substitute for specific training or for delegation and supervision. Describes population served and step-by-step procedures and scenarios for meeting their needs. Includes illustrations and representative documents.

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Paraeducators: Lifelines In The Classroom

Melding: Training Module for Partner Teachers who Supervise Special Education Paraeducators

Mary W. Lasater, Ed.D., Marlene M. Johnson, Ed.D., Mary M. Fitzgerald, M.Ed., LR Consulting, POB 6049-747, Katy, TX 77491-6049

LifeLines is a comprehensive series of six trainng modules developed to prepare pre-service and in-service paraeducators during staff development and mentoring opportunities. The modules incorporate experimential learning activities, as well as left and right brain activities to ensure that the needs of a variety of adult learners will be met. Each user-friendly module includes activity notes, overhead and handout masters, and resource section. ParaEducators: LifeLines in the Classroom includes six modules:

  • Module 1: Defining the Role of the Paraeducator
  • Module 2: Celebrating Similarities: Students with Disabilities
  • Module 3: The IEP Process: The Role of the Paraeducator
  • Module 4: Supporting the Instructional Process
  • Module 5: Behavior Improvement Strategies
  • Module 6: Least Restrictive Environment and the Role of the Paraeducator

Access to learn more about specific objectives covered in each of the modules. For a review of LifeLines, see Teacher Education and Special Education, v21, n2, 150-153, 1998.

Price $825 per set of modules or $150 for individual modules.

Melding, a training module for partner teachers on how to mentor and coach paraeducators is also written in the same format as lifelines and parallels the module series. Price: $150 for the module.

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A Paraprofessional's Handbook

Working with Students Who are Visually Impaired

Cyral Miller and Nancy Levack, Editors, Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, 176 pp., 1997.

Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Business Office, 1100 West 45th Street, Austin, Texas 78756-3494

Designed to help vision teachers and paraprofessionals share basic information needed to work with students who are visually impaired. Also for wider community of regular teachers, school support staff, parents, and community members, Chapters can be used as needed to support short inservice sessions. Sections: Overview (role of paraprofessionals and explanation of visual impairments), Social Skills, Daily Living Skills, Orientation and Mobility Skills, Technology, Adaptation, Students with Multiple Impairments, and an Appendix.

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Paraprofessionals: The Bridge To Successful Full Inclusion

Wadsworth, Donna E.; Knight, Diane

Intervention in School and Clinic; v31 n3 p166-71 Jan 1996

Available from UMI

This article offers six training suggestions for preparing paraprofessionals to work successfully with students having disabilities in an inclusive setting. These include providing preservice training through a centralized interdisciplinary training team, modeling the use of appropriate behavior management techniques, and communicating the importance of team collaboration.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ516186

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Piecing Together The Paraprofessional Puzzle


Carol Long

Instructional Media Laboratory, University of Missouri-Columbia, 2316 Industrial Drive, Columbia, MO 65202 or call 1-800-669-2465; $9.00

Provides framework for orientation and training of paraprofessional in his/her initial year of employment. The goals are to facilitate the transition from novice to experienced paraprofessional by explaining various roles and functions of job, develop a district or building job description for paraprofessional, clarify concept of confidentiality, understand the special education process and the procedures used by district to evaluate and diagnose students, and know the different methods for observing and recording behavior.

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Positive Behavior Strategies For Paraprofessionals

Module Four. Facilitator's Edition [and] Student's Edition. Strategies for Paraprofessionals Who Support Individuals with Disabilities Series

Hewitt, Amy; Langenfeld, Karen

Hutchinson Technical Coll., MN; Minnesota State Board of Technical Colleges, St. Paul; Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Institute on Community Integration, 1995, 217 pp.

University of Minnesota, The Institute on Community Integration (UAP), 150 Pillsbury Drive, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 ($25 facilitator edition; $15 student edition)

The fourth in a series of federally supported modules for training paraprofessional school personnel who work with students with disabilities, this module presents principles and techniques of behavior management. Both a facilitator's edition and a student's edition are provided. Chapter 1 introduces the concept of behavior and the role of the consequences and antecedents in the environment. Chapter 2 offers guidelines on creating positive learning experiences. It also discusses development of a positive reinforcement plan and common questions about reinforcement techniques. An overview of challenging behavior is given in Chapter 3. The cost-benefit analysis of changing behavior and the three-factor theory are discussed. Chapter 4 focuses on alternatives to challenging behaviors, including overcoming avoidance. Chapter 5 gives guidance on using behavioral interventions with students and what to do in an emergency. An appendix defines and explains the appropriate use of controlled or regulated procedures (such as use of restraints, or temporary delay of meals or water) under Minnesota Law. The facilitator's edition offers learning activities and information sheets to be used as transparencies. (Contains 52 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED398697

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Preparing Para-Professoional Early Interventionists (PPEI)

Manual and videotape

Samuel Baird

Communication Skill Builders, P.O. Box 42050-Cs4, Tucson, Arizona 84733 or call (602) 323-7500; $79

Curriculum developed to help professional early interventionists provide training for paraprofessionals so that they will become valued and respected contributors to early intervention team. Addresses basic and generic early intervention issues. Used to prepare paraprofessionals to extend the impact of professional early interventionists and to assist with implementing IFSPâs that provide family support, child development, and infant-parent services.

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Profile Of Effective Teaching In A Multilingual Classroom

The National Resource Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, video with resource book

Bilingual Research Center, UCSC, Social Science II, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064; $40; (408) 459-3351

The video starts with the acquisition of language skills through math. Students with various language and cultural backgrounds (chronological grade approximately middle school) can easily work mathematical equations as numbers are a universal language. Students are taught to grammatically pronounce numbers and to read math problems. Additionally, they are taught to use Venn diagrams as a way of collecting data for comparison and contrast reports. By integrating math with language skills, each student is afforded the opportunity to build a vocabulary as well as develop their problem-solving skills. Instructors are encouraged to speak slowly, use visual demonstrations, and provide gestures wherever possible. Learning strategies are modeled in every subject matter. Teachers emphasize the importance of reading the text headings, look at graphics and pictures, and skim bold printed material. Instructors are encouraged to engage in thematic learning while continuously drawing upon the students cultural heritage.

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Providing Cross-Cultural Support Services To Individuals With Disabilities And Their Families

Module Two. Facilitator's Edition [and] Student's Edition. Strategies for Paraprofessionals Who Support Individuals with Disabilities Series

Slobof, Jenelle; and others

Hutchinson Technical Coll., MN.; Minnesota State Board of Technical Colleges, St. Paul.; Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Inst. on Community Integration, 1996, 265 pp.

University of Minnesota, The Institute on Community Integration (UAP), 150 Pillsbury Drive, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 ($25 facilitator edition; $15 student edition)

This module presents information for training paraprofessional school staff on providing cross-cultural support services to individuals with disabilities and their families. Both a facilitator's edition and a student's edition are provided. Chapter 1 offers an introduction to diversity and direct service and includes sections on terminology and cultural competence. Chapter 2 discusses self-identification and ways to learn about other cultures. Chapter 3 provides information on institutional cultural competence, including institutional and media bias. Individual cultural competence is discussed in chapter 4. Chapter 5 looks at similarities and differences between cultures. Using culturally sensitive and inclusive language is reviewed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 gives tips on being a culturally competent paraprofessional. Chapter 8 reviews previous information. The facilitator's edition offers learning activities and information sheets to be used as transparencies. A glossary of terms and a resource list of videotapes, books, journal articles, newsletters, and other publications are appended. (Contains 17 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED398695

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The Teacher As An Executive

A Training Program for the Teacher as Leader of the Instructional Team

Betty Ashbaker and Jill Morgan

Center for Persons with Disabilities, 6800 Old Main Hill, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-6800; phone 435-797-7001 or fax 435-797-9444; $40 plus shipping and handling

Designed to enhance the skills of the teacher as leader of the classroom instructional team. Contains chapters on: 1) the importance of effective instructional programs, including steps that can be taken to rectify the shortcomings in curricular materials; 2) teamwork, which clarifies roles and establishes expectations and examines communication styles and their impact on teamwork; 3) self-evaluation through observation, which introduces a simple yet effective classroom observation procedure for identifying and meeting the professional development needs of both teacher and paraeducator; 4) post-observation conferencing, which completes the observation procedure by providing a problem-solving approach to understanding classroom situations; and 5) training, addressing the questions of how to determine training needs, methods of delivery, and the assessment of effectiveness of training. It is in workbook format and can be used by a teacher working independently or as a participantâs manual in a group delivery format. Accompanying video contains clips of teachers and paraeducators at work and is used for illustration and evaluation purposes and for completion of assignments.

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Teamwork And Evaluation For Teachers And Paraeducators

Betty Ashbaker and Jill Morgan

Center for Persons with Disabilities, 6800 Old Main Hill, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-6800; phone 435-797-7001 or fax 435-797-9444; $40 plus shipping and handling

These materials allow teachers and paraeducators to examine their current teamwork and self-evaluation practices and set goals for changes in order to increase their effectiveness as an instructional team. Central feature is use of observation data as a tool for self-evaluation÷not as a threatening process. With the help of a colleague who collects data without passing judgment÷but who is then available to discuss the data÷they can evaluate their own performances and make improvements. Chapters cover: clarifying and understanding roles, more effective communication, collaboration, collecting observational data, self-evaluation for improvement of practice, and team conferencing. There are also review chapters on the basics of effective instruction and behavior management. Teamwork and Evaluation is in binder format and is designed as a workbook, facilitating planning both individually and as a team.

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A Training Program Designed To Develop Knowledgeable Paraprofessionals With Improved Job Performance Skills To Meet The Needs Of Teachers And Special Education Students

Davis, Julie H.

M.S. Final Report, Nova Southeastern University, 1995, 81 pp.

The paper reports on a practicum project to assess the training needs of paraprofessionals and to develop a training program to meet those needs. The first section of the paper is a literature review, which revealed few studies that have addressed the efficacy of paraprofessionals, though research that has been done indicates that paraprofessionals working with handicapped children have a direct effect on the students' academic performance. The literature also reveals that few states systematically train or certify paraprofessionals, and few universities teach preservice teachers how to utilize paraprofessionals in the classroom. The training program was designed to help improve the knowledge of disabilities, working relationships, and job performance skills of a target group of 12 special education paraprofessionals who work with K-2 students with handicaps in a rural Maine island school. Twenty-five skills were identified as those a paraprofessional should possess for job success; a needs assessment survey was administered to participants. Overall, entry skills and knowledge of the target group assessed ranged from 20 percent to 60 percent level of proficiency, well below the 80 percent or above level of proficiency preferred in the literature and among professionals surveyed for the study. The objectives for the program were for the paraprofessionals to increase their knowledge of disabilities, working relationships, and job performance skills by a program objective of 80 percent. The target group participated in a 12-week training session developed from a needs analysis assessment. Each of the weekly work sessions is described in the report. Project evaluations and assessments indicated that all program objectives were met, with the target group improving dramatically in all areas. Recommendations for staff development budget and expenditures, plus topics to be covered are outlined. Ten appendices provide: Maine Department of Education Special Education Regulations; Needs Assessment; Summary of Needs Assessment; Pretest for Paraprofessionals; Posttest for Paraprofessionals; Results of Pre-Assessment for Paraprofessionals; Summary of Results of Pre/Post Evaluations; Pre/Post Professional Evaluation of Paraprofessionals; Paraprofessional Training Evaluation; and Paraprofessional Certificate of Participation. (Contains 40 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED386430

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Sourcebook For Teaching Assistants In Early Childhood

Shelton, Gen, Editor; Indiana Preschool Initiative, Center for Innovative Practices for young Children, Institute for the Study of Developmental Disabilities; Foreword by Anna Lou Pickett, Director, National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals in Education and Related Services; 274 pp.; 1996

Center for Disability Information and Referral (CeDIR), Institute for the Study of Developmental Disabilities, The University Affiliated Program of Indiana, Indiana University-Bloomington, 2853 East Tenth Street, Bloomington, IN 47408-2601; telephone 812-855-6509; e-mail <>

Directed to Teaching Assistants and the teachers who work with them. Also useful to policymakers and personnel developers. Helps paraprofessionals and teachers how to define role as a team member, recognize the characteristics of a quality early childhood program, and use child development information to assist in the teaching process. Designed to be read over the course of a semester with time devoted to discussing a chapter weekly to enhance communication between adults in the classroom. Contains practical and theoretical knowledge. Sections: I) The Team--Staff and Families; II) The Program--Quality characteristics and Confidentiality; III) The Children--Growing and Learning; and IV) Appendices on disabilities, resources, and a glossary.

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Communication Skills and Strategies for Individuals Working with Children who Have Sensory Impairment (for children 3-8 years)

24 videotapes plus workbooks, $250

Hope Inc., 55 East 100 North, Suite 203, Logan, Utah 84321

435-752-9533; e-mail <>; web site <>

These 24 videotapes are especially for paraeducators, teacher aides, and teachers and feature skills and strategies for communicating effectively with young children who are sensory impaired. Topics include recognizing and responding to communication signals, building communication into daily routines, interactive turn-taking, active vs. passive communication, choice-making, avoiding communication stress, using calendar systems, motivating the child to communicate, encouraging peer interaction, using comments and questions, and play that encourages communication. Each video has an accompanying workbook and a laminated card with lesson tips.

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Working With Individuals Who Are Medically Fragile Or Have Physical Disabilities

Module Six. Facilitator's Edition [and] Student's Edition

Strategies for Paraprofessionals Who Support Individuals with Disabilities Series

Ness, Jean E.

Hutchinson Technical Coll., MN.; Minnesota State Board of Technical Colleges, St. Paul.; Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Inst. on Community Integration, 1995; 597 pp.

University of Minnesota, The Institute on Community Integration (UAP), 150 Pillsbury Drive, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 ($25 facilitator edition; $15 student edition)

The sixth in a series of federally supported modules for training paraprofessional school personnel who work with students with disabilities, this module presents information on working with individuals who are medically fragile or have physical disabilities. Both a facilitator's edition and a student's edition are provided. Chapter 1 examines the changing roles of education related to students with disabilities. Chapter 2 investigates national demographics related to disabilities. Inclusive language is discussed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 provides information on disability-related laws and abuse and neglect laws. The role of the school nurse and health paraprofessional are addressed in Chapter 5. Communication strategies and problem-solving techniques are described in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 provides information on teamwork. Chapter 8 discusses caring for individuals with different disabilities. Specific instructions for 10 different health procedures and general instructions for 7 others are provided in Chapters 9 and 10. Chapter 11 presents material on properly administering medication at school. Nineteen appendices provide extensive supplementary material, forms, and articles. The facilitator's edition offers learning activities and information sheets to be used as transparencies. (Contains 46 references.)


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Harrison, Barbara

Montessori Life; v6 n4 p26-27, Fall 1994

Theme Issue: "Spotlight: Public Schools."

Describes organizing and conducting workshops for adult teaching assistants in a Montessori public school setting. Includes contact information for obtaining similar workshop kits, with outlines, handouts, projects, and forms.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ499951

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The Young Adult Institute Video Series

Young Adult Institute

The Young Adult Institute, 460 W. 34th St., 11th floor, New York, NY 10001; or fax to (212) 629-4113; $95 for all videos except AIDS video which is $145

Titles include: Working with Families: What Professionals Need to Know, Clients Rights are Human Rights, Strategies for Changing Behavior: A Positive Approach, AIDS: Training People with Developmental Disabilities to Better Protect Themselves

Policy Questions and Administrative Issues

A Commonsense Guide To Bilingual Education

Chapter 5: Bilingual Teachers and Aides
Judith Lessow-Hurley
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA; 92 pp., 1991
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1250 N. Pitt St., Alexandria, VA (Stock No. 611-91115, $6.95)

Guide analyzes current issues in bilingual education, reviews related research, describes innovative and exemplary program formats for dual-language programming, and examines issues in bilingual education for both limited-English-proficient (LEP) and monolingual native-English-speaking students. Chapter 5 discusses the roles of teachers and paraprofessionals in bilingual classrooms.

The Community Support Skill Standards: Tools For Managing Change And Achieving Outcomes

Skill Standards for Direct Service Workers in the Human Services
Marianne Taylor, Valerie Bradley, and Ralph Warren, Jr., editors; 86 pp.; 1996
Human Services Research Institute, 2336 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02140; telephone 617-876-0426

Project, funded by the U.S. Department of Education, is designed to foster the adoption of national, voluntary skill standards for direct service workers, increase both horizontal and vertical career opportunities for human service personnel, and to create a foundation for a nationally recognized, voluntary certification of direct service practitioners.

Employment, Preparation And Management Of Paraeducators: Challenges To Appropriate Service For Students With Developmental Disabilities

Hilton, Alan; Gerlach, Kent
Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities; v32 n2 p71-76 Jun 1997

Presents a position statement of the Board of Directors of the Division on Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities that reviews the employment, preparation, and management of paraeducators. The statement addresses role definition, employment and management, legal and ethical responsibilities, job descriptions, paraeducator training, and supervisory training.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ547459

Guide For Effective Paraeducator Practices In Iowa

Iowa Department of Education, Division of Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education, 54 pp. plus handouts, January 1998
State of Iowa, Department of Education, Grimes State Office Bldg., Des Moines, Iowa 50319-0146

This guide describes the services that are necessary to support effective paraeducator services in accredited Iowa schools. It is intended to assist schools in improving services to children as well as complying with rules and regulations. The guidelines offered are intended as a prototype for local adoption and a framework for dialogue among teachers, paraeducators, and others. They may be modified with local input.

Guildelines For Language, Academic, And Special Education Services Required For Limited-English-Proficient Students In California Public Schools, K-12

Special Education Division, California Department of Education, Sacramento, 26 pp., 1997
Department, PO Box 944272, Sacramento, CA 94244-2720

Describes what bilingual education and special education services are required in California for limited-English-proficient students K-12. Does not address all the services required for these students, but does specify how those students identified as requiring special education services are ensured access to the core curriculum. Summarizes applicable requirements and procedures that California educational agencies must undertake to comply with federal and state statutes and regulations as well as applicable court cases.

Helping Or Hovering? Effects Of Instructional Assistant Proximity On Students With Disabilities

Giangreco, Michael F.; Edelman, Susan W.; Luiselli, Tracy Evans; MacFarland, Stephanie Z.C.
Exceptional Children; v64 n1 p7-18 Fall 1997

Observations and interviews in 16 classrooms concerning proximity of instructional assistants to students with disabilities found: (1) interference with general educator responsibility; (2) separation from classmates; (3) dependence on adults; (4) impact on peer interactions; (5) limitations on receiving competent instruction; (6) loss of personal control; (7) loss of gender identity; and (8) interference with instruction of other students.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ552179

Home Visitor

Child Development Associate Assessment and Competency Standards
CDA National Credentialing Program, 46 pp., 1992
Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, 1341 G Street, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005-3105

Part I: An overview of the CDA National Credentialing Program and the Competency standards and assessment system for home visitors. Part II: The eligibility requirements and information collection responsibilities of the four members of the local team that conducts the evaluation of a Candidate for the CDA Credential. Part III: The complete CDA Competency Standards for Home Visitors. Appendices include a history of the CDA program and a glossary of terms.

Issues In The Development Of Guidelines For The Preparation And Use Of Speech-Language Paraprofessionals And Their Sl Supervisors Working In Education Settings

Radaszewski Byrne, Mary
Journal of Children's Communication Development; v18 n1 p5-21 Spr-Sum 1997

Abstract:Ê Reviews the preparation, use, supervision, and qualifications of speech-language (SL) paraprofessionals and their SL supervisors working in educational settings. Identifies ongoing issues that have been barriers to the development of national and state guidelines for SL paraprofessional use and supervision and discusses current issues promoting the development of such guidelines. Offers recommendations.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550628

The Key To Lowering Staff Turnover Is In The Hiring

Fowler, Dora
Early Childhood News; v8 n1 p34-35 Jan-Feb 1996

Discusses the benefits of using a pre-employment test to help screen job candidates for those qualities that lead to cost-effective long-term employment. Gives an example of how to determine the cost of staff turnover at any child-care facility.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ520378

Learning Disabilities: Use Of Paraprofessionals

National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities
Asha. v. 41 no. 2 (Mar./Apr. 1999 supplement no.19) pp. 37-46

A document on the use of paraprofessionals in the treatment of learning disabilities from the U.S. National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities is presented. Aspects discussed in the document are the foundation for successful paraprofessional services, key word definitions, ethical responsibilities, education requirements for paraprofessionals, roles and responsibilities of paraprofessionals in a learning disabilities program, activities outside the scope of responsibilities for paraprofessionals, responsibilities of the qualified teacher/service provider with regard to the use of paraprofessionals, and guidelines for the supervision of paraprofessionals.

Necessity: The Mother Of Invention. A Parent's Recommendation For The Preparation And Use Of Speech-Language Paraprofessionals In Education Settings

Haas, Eileen M.
Journal of Children's Communication Development; v18 n1 p111-13 Spr-Sum 1997

The mother of a 12-year-old medically fragile profoundly deaf child, urges the utilization of speech-language paraprofessionals in the schools in light of her successful experiences with paraprofessionals and the shortage of speech-language therapists competent in sign language. Training suggestions are also provided.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550636

Parameters Of Paraprofessionalism: Exploring The Myths And Realities Associated With Paraprofessionals In Rehabilitation Settings [And] Comments On Benshoff, Et Al.

Benshoff, John J.; and others
Journal of Rehabilitation Administration; v19 n2 p133-43, 145-46 May 1995
Available from Journal of Rehabilitation Administration, PO Box 19891, San Diego, CA 92159

Benshoff and others explore misconceptions about the inservice training needs, continuing education, supervision, and evaluation of rehabilitation paraprofessionals. A response by Emener draws distinctions between professionals and paraprofessionals.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ521078

Preparing Teachers To Work With Paraeducators

Salzberg, Charles L.; Morgan, Jill
Teacher Education and Special Education; v18 n1 p49-55 Win 1995
Available from UMI

This article reviews the literature on preparing teachers to work with and supervise paraeducators in classrooms serving students at risk or with disabilities. Although considerable agreement was found on the content of such preparation, the review found that the number of researchers and developers in this area is currently small.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ516090

Profiles In Collaboration

Chapter 4: Kansas Project Partnership: A State Systems Change Approach to Improving Teacher Development

Shortages In Professions Working With Young Children With Disabilities And Their Families

Hebbeler, Kathleen
North Carolina University, Chapel Hill, Frank Porter Graham Center, 1994, 43 p.; A product of the National Early Childhood Technical Assistance System.
NEC*TAS Coordinating Office Publications, 550 NationsBank Plaza, 137 E. Franklin St., Chapel Hill, NC 27514 ($5, quantity discounts available).

This paper synthesizes information about shortages among the professions working with young children with disabilities, birth through age 5, and their families. The paper begins with a look at national data on personnel working in early intervention and preschool special education. Distinctions between the work force in early intervention (Part H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and preschool special education (Part B of the IDEA) are clarified. The paper reports that teachers and paraprofessionals make up the largest portion of the more than 30,000 individuals working in early intervention; teachers and speech-language pathologists working with preschoolers total more than 17,000 (with no data on related services personnel). The paper examines shortages in key professions and what the future is likely to hold for them, focusing on physical and occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, nurses, and teachers. Other issues related to personnel planning are discussed, including personnel quality, the impact of contracted services, and program adaptation to personnel shortages. The paper then explores various approaches and some of the challenges to quantifying shortages. The paper closes with a discussion of possible responses to the problem, such as decreasing attrition, staffing differently, and revising professional standards to increase supply. (Contains 36 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED376637

Speech-Language Paraprofessionals Working In Kentucky Schools

Blodgett, Elizabeth G.; Miller, Jean M.
Journal of Children's Communication Development; v18 n1 p65-79 Spr-Sum 1997

Describes factors leading to the recent statewide introduction of speech-language paraprofessionals called speech-language pathology assistants (SLPA) in Kentucky's public schools. Also describes the licensure model, requirements for SLPA licensure, and the scope of practice associated with the position. Reports results of a survey indicating positive effects of SLPAs on service delivery.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550632


Are Community College Training Programs For Paraeducators Feasible?

French, Nancy K.; Cabell, Elizabeth A.
Community College Journal of Research and Practice; v17 n2 p131-40 Mar-Apr 1993

Examines the feasibility of developing training programs in the Colorado community college system for paraeducators (i.e., technicians who provide personal care, instructional services and behavior management to students with disabilities and remedial needs) based on a survey of directors of special education, teachers, and personnel directors. Suggests characteristics of such programs.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ461675

Beyond The Expert Helping Model: Empowering Paraprofessionals And Families At Risk

Journal of Extension; v31 p14-16 Fall 1993

Outlines two models for working with families living in at-risk environments: the empowerment model and the expert model, with particular emphasis on the role of paraprofessionals.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ472112

Changes In Concern And Working Knowledge Levels Following Attendance At A Vocational Special Needs Paraprofessional Training Workshop

Jones, Karen H.; Nagel, K.L.
Journal of Vocational and Technical Education; v9 n2 p17-23 Spr 1993

Thirty-two vocational special needs paraprofessionals who attended a training certification workshop significantly increased their knowledge of and concern for special needs students. A comprehensive training model encompassing 12 special needs categories was developed.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ470062

Child Academic Engagement Related To Proximity Of Paraprofessionals

Werts, Margaret Gessler; Adviser: Zigmond, Naomi
University of Pittsburgh, AAT 9906254, DAI-A 59/09, p. 3407, Mar 1999, 127 pp.

Paraprofessionals are persons who work in classrooms under the supervision of teachers or other certified personnel. The duties and responsibilities of a paraprofessional have changed over the past few decades and they may vary from situation to situation. In some cases, reported activities include being a member of a collaborative team, guiding students in drill and practice exercises, or teaching instructional groups. Some teachers use paraprofessionals only for transition from one area of the building to another, while others appeared to use the extra assistance for teaching small groups and monitoring academic tasks. Recent authorizations of legislation that call for the appropriate education of children with disabilities have increased the use of non-professional personnel due to shortages in the supply of certified and qualified personnel to deliver services, as well as the cost of staffing schools with adequate numbers of teachers. The continued increase in the number of students with disabilities who are educated in inclusive settings may escalate the practice even more.

The increase in use of paraprofessionals has not been accompanied by systematic examination to determine if use of non-certified personnel leads to appropriate child outcomes, such as an increase in a child's academic engagement. This study examined the effect of paraprofessional proximity at two positions (less than 2 feet from the child and more than 5 feet from the child). A single subject alternating treatments design (n = 4) was used to investigate the effects of proximity on academic engagement (passive, active, and non-engaged) and the nature and frequency of interactions between children with disabilities and the paraprofessionals in the two proximity conditions.Ê Results indicated that: (1) occurrence of non-engaged behaviors is higher when paraprofessionals are positioned more than 5 feet from the children; (2) occurrence of engaged behavior is higher when the paraprofessional is within 2 feet of the child; and (3) for some, but not all children, active engagement is related to with verbal interactions with the paraprofessional.

A Consultation And Paraprofessional Pull-In System Of Service Delivery: A Report On Student Outcomes And Teacher Satisfaction

Welch, Marshall; Richards, Gayle; Okada, Teresa
Remedial and Special Education, v. 16 (Jan. 1995) p. 16-28

This article presents the results of an evaluation study conducted to assess the impact of a hybrid approach to educational partnership known as the Consultation and Paraprofessional Pull-in System (CAPPS) for serving at-risk students and those with mild academic disabilities. CAPPS is the synthesis of three predominant methods of shared responsibility in service delivery: (1) resource/consulting teacher (R/CT), (2) pull-in programming, and (3) utilization of paraprofessionals for service delivery. This article begins by providing a description of the CAPPS model and its implementation at an elementary school in a suburban area of the Rocky Mountain region using cross-grade grouping and outcome-based education as a basis for instructional programming and evaluation. Results from a quantitative and qualitative evaluation project designed to assess teacher attitudes, student outcomes, and number of referrals for special education services are presented. The article concludes with a discussion of the results followed by recommendations for implementation and further research.

Current Trends In The Use Of Paraprofessionals In Early Intervention And Preschool Services

NEC*TAS Synthesis Report
Striffler, Nancy
Frank Porter Graham Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1993, 30 pp.
A product of the National Early Childhood Technical Assistance System

This paper synthesizes current thinking, issues, and practices related to the use of paraprofessionals in the provision of early intervention and preschool services to children with disabilities, birth through 5 years of age, and their families. Information was gathered from 31 state and jurisdiction coordinators of preschool services under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and coordinators of IDEA Part H. Findings revealed that 18 states had a policy for assuring quality personnel for either early intervention or preschool services that includes the use of paraprofessionals; that 5 more states indicated that a policy was in the planning stage; and that 8 states indicated that no policy exists. Ten states reported that they had established a new occupational category; of these, eight were at the paraprofessional level. Fourteen states had developed or were developing personnel standards for paraprofessionals, and 10 states had developed or were developing a credentialing process. Case examples of two states are presented: Illinois, where the Department of Education is the lead agency for both Part B and Part H programs; and Utah, where the State Board of Education is the lead agency for Part B and the Department of Health is the lead agency for Part H programs. Names and addresses of state resources for information on paraprofessional personnel policies and practices are listed. Appendixes contain a copy of the data collection instrument and a chart reporting each state's response.

ERIC Accession Number: ED358655

Effect Of A Staff Training Package On Increasing Community Integration For People With Severe Disabilities

Smalley, Kimberly A.; and others

Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities; v32 n1 p42-48 Mar 1997

Evaluation of the effectiveness of a training program for behavioral aides providing individualized support for adults with severe disabilities and challenging behaviors in a day treatment center found all five participants were able to show marked increases in their clients' social and physical community integration. The training program focused on challenging behaviors, valued activities, and physical and social integration.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ542767

The Effectiveness Of An Intervener Model Of Services For Young Deaf-Blind Children

Watkins, Susan, and others
American Annals of the Deaf; v139 n4 p404-09 Oct 1994

This study attempted to validate the effectiveness of the Intervener Service Model, which provides the services of a paraprofessional (called an intervener) to families of young children who are deaf-blind. The intervener provides auditory, visual, and tactile stimulation and helps the child develop interaction behaviors. Quantitative and qualitative data support the effectiveness of the model.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ493082

Employment Of Educators In Preschool Mainstreaming: A Survey Of General Early Educators

Wolery, Mark; and others

Journal of Early Intervention; v18 n1 p64-77 Win 1994

A national survey of 483 preschool personnel revealed that paraprofessionals were hired in high proportions across all program types and more frequently in mainstreamed than non-mainstreamed programs. The lowest levels of paraprofessional employment occurred for public school kindergartens. Nearly three-fourths of the mainstreamed programs did not report hiring a special education teacher.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ487939

Esl In Special Education

Nancy Cloud, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Washington, DC
Internet ED303044, Dec. 88 ESL in Special Education, ERIC Digest

Article shows that LEP students require tailored educational services and exceptional LEP students require highly specialized programs. Focus is on strategies that will prevent inappropriate referral of the LEP student into special education. Author sees need to have special educators and ESL educators cross-trained in order to deliver integrated services that will account for childrenâs second language and disability characteristics. She presents a strong desire to have ESL materials developed for both mildly and moderately/severely disabled students. This article is written for the administrator or program specialist who is interested in cross-training professionals and paraprofessionals in ESL and Special Education. Included is a wealth of documented reference for those who may desire to research programs for the LEP special education student.

An Examination Of Paraprofessional Involvement In Supporting Inclusion Of Students With Autism

Young, Brooke; and others
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities; v12 n1 p31-38,48 Spr 1997

A study monitored the behaviors of three students (ages 7-9) with autism in inclusionary settings relative to paraprofessional proximity and classroom activity. Results are presented for on-task behavior, in-seat behavior, self-stimulatory responses, and inappropriate vocalizations. Data are also presented for interactions initiated by paraprofessionals, teachers, and students. Implications for paraprofessional training are discussed.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ544392

Expanding Paraprofessional Staff To Help Children Succeed In School Neighborhood Employment Initiative

Seeley, David S.
Institute for Responsive Education, Boston, Mass., 1993, 45 pp.
Institute for Responsive Education, 605 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 ($8)

A preliminary study reports on the possibilities for increasing the employment of people from New York City's poor neighborhoods to help children succeed in school through such non-classroom activities as home visitation, parent education, facilitation, and coordination of parent-involvement activities, and assistance in the provision of health, counseling, and family services. It is based on a review of present paraprofessional staffing in New York City and discussions with people inside and outside the school system. Preliminary results indicate that hiring neighborhood people to help schools is a sound concept. At present, there are many paraprofessionals in New York, but only a small number of paraprofessionals are employed in reaching out to families. There is a pressing need for the kinds of services such a staff could provide. Some existing funds could be reprogrammed for these purposes, and some new sources are possible. The selection and training of paraprofessionals is extremely important, as are leadership and administration, career ladders, and continuing evaluation and research of their use. Appendix A provides background information, and Appendix B is a suggested funding proposal.

ERIC Accession Number: ED376237

The Impact Of Inclusion Of Students With Challenging Needs

Bang, Myong Ye; Lamb, Peg
Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps (TASH) (New Orleans, LA, November 1996), 17 pp.

This study examined the impact of 3 years of full inclusion of students with severe disabilities in a Lansing (Michigan) high school. Teacher and parent surveys as well as observations of student interactions and classrooms were used to evaluate inclusion of seven students with low-incidence disabilities (autistic impairment, trainable mental impairment, severe mental impairment, and severe multiple impairments). In general, parents reported positive changes in family life with increased interactions with family friends and neighbors, decreased behavioral problems, but increased parenting stress. Both special and general education teachers reported that information sharing, development of instructional materials, and support from consultants and paraprofessions were effective. Similarly, both groups of educators reported that in-service programs, staff development activities, and technical assistance from the district were ineffective. Parents and teachers agreed that students' in-school opportunities for interaction with nondisabled students were enhanced in the inclusive setting. Observation of classrooms found interactions between included students and nondisabled peers to be overwhelmingly accepting. Classroom observations also indicated that paraprofessionals assisted the included students in understanding directions but tended to dominate the student's interactions. Implications for improved staff development in the future are discussed. (Contains 13 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED408745

Improving The Classroom Behaviour Of A Student With Severe Disabilities Via Paraprofessional Training

Martella, Ronald C.; and others B.C. Journal of Special Education; v17 n1 p33-44 1993

Systematic training of a paraprofessional in effective instructional procedures with a student with severe mental retardation and aberrant behaviors resulted in improved skills and fewer negative statements by the paraprofessional and decreased aberrant behaviors and increased compliance by the student. Follow-up at 55 weeks indicated maintenance of improved skills and student behaviors.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ472638

In First Person Plural: Growing Up With A Disadvantaged Community

Salach, Simcha
Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands), 1993, 116 pp.
Bernard van Leer Foundation, P.O. Box 82334, 2508 EH The Hague, Netherlands.

From the perspective of the project leader, this book traces the growth and development of the Early Childhood and Family Education Project in Morasha, Israel, during the 8 years of its existence (1982-1990). Chapter 1 describes Morasha, a poor, immigrant neighborhood in Ramat HaSharon, and the author's childhood there. Chapter 2 describes the efforts of the Morasha Council to include the community in the state of Israel's Project Renewal. Chapter 3 reviews Project Renewal activities and efforts to obtain funding from the Bernard van Leer Foundation to begin the Early Childhood and Family Education Project, which sought to develop programs to train paraprofessional women from the community, implementing a home visiting program for mothers and preschoolers, and develop a program of family day care centers for toddlers and preschool children. Chapter 4 describes the work involved in building the project's infrastructure. In chapter 5, basic project approaches, principles, and objectives are described, while in chapter 6, the work involved in translating these theories into community work is detailed. Chapters 7 and 8 focus on the project's professional staff, paraprofessional counselors, and paraprofessional care-givers. In chapter 9, efforts to disseminate the project to additional communities in the region are related. Chapter 10 describes the project's structural and organizational characteristics and relationships with other agencies. Chapter 11 explains the project's evaluation component, and chapter 12 provides a summary of the project as a personal and collective journey. Additional information about the project is appended.

ERIC Accession Number: ED369492

Increasing Day Care Staff Members' Interactions During Care-Giving Routines

Venn, Martha L.; Wolery, Mark
Journal of Early Intervention; v16 n4 p304-19 Fall 1992

Four paraprofessional staff members in a mainstreamed day care program were trained to engage in positive interactive behaviors during diaper changing. Results indicated that staff increased frequency of game playing and other interactive behaviors during diapering, but increases were not generalized to feeding routines.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ459625

Investigating The Effects Of A Paraprofessional Teaching Sharing Behaviors To Young Children With Special Needs In An Inclusive Kindergarten Classroom

Perez, Janelle Cordes; Adviser: Murdock, Jane
University of New Orleans, AAT 9900965, DAI-A 59/08, P. 2928, Feb 1999, 223 pp.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the following research questions: First, will the paraprofessional's modeling, prompting, and reinforcement strategy increase specific sharing behaviors of young children with disabilities/special needs? Second, will the sharing behaviors maintain over time? A single-subject design and a multiple baseline procedure across subjects were used to answer these questions.

The target behavior, sharing, is an important developmental task for young children with special needs. Therefore, the sharing behaviors of two females and three males who were developmentally delayed and between 61 months and 66 months of age were investigated in an inclusive kindergarten setting in a public elementary school.

Overall results revealed that the paraprofessional's intervention was effective in increasing all five of the participants' sharing behaviors. Furthermore, four of the participants' sharing behaviors maintained over 7-9 days and four of the participants' sharing behavior persisted over 113-115 days after the intervention ceased. Thus, the non-intrusive and efficient intervention could be implemented by other paraprofessionals in inclusive kindergarten settings to teach young children with special needs to share.

Meeting The Challenge Of Paraprofessional Training: An Application Of The Competence Model

Sullivan, Kathleen O'Connell; Adviser: Swift, Marshall
Widener University, Institute for Graduate Clinical Psychology, AAT 9824803, DAI-B 59/02, p. 889, Aug 1998, 159 pp.

The purpose of this dissertation was to design a process to develop and increase the psychological skills of children with emotional and behavioral disorders while guiding the special education paraprofessionals to foster psychosocial skills and to actively participate in the development of a competence-based therapeutic milieu. In an effort to achieve this goal, a survey was conducted with paraprofessionals to assess the current state of training in a moderate-sized mental health clinic. In addition, the survey tapped the paraprofessionals' perceptions of the typical skills displayed by the students in their service. Based upon the results of this survey and a review of the relevant literature, a three-phase paraprofessional training process was developed. Phase I focuses on the selection of paraprofessional personnel. Phase II focuses on paraprofessional training. Phase III focuses on an on-going consultation process between the psychologist and the paraprofessional.

Meeting The Demands For Quality Teachers: A Case Study Of A Bilingual Paraprofessional-To-Bilingual-Teacher Training Program

Torres, Roberto L.; Adviser: Meloth, Michael
University of Colorado at Boulder, AAT 9838414, DAI-A 59/06, p. 1983, Dec. 1998, 287 pp.

The training of paraprofessionals to become teachers has been a practice used to meet the high demand of educators. This practice represents a challenge because paraprofessionals require a training that will improve their knowledge and skills in areas like bilingual education. The Paraprofessional Teacher Training Program (PTTP) was designed as an innovative approach that trained paraprofessionals who were aspiring to careers in education.

This dissertation studies and discusses the impact of the PTTP on four of its graduates in light of key program components and experiences that related to their formation. It is a case study that included in-depth teacher interviews and classroom observations. The relevance of this study resided in understanding the training program elements that impacted new teachers and why they feel empowered to teach after participating in the

PTTP. The study asked the following: (1) What types of professional benefits do the teachers attribute to their participation in the PTTP? (2) What kinds of instruction do the teachers provide for their students and do the instruction and curriculum reflect the goals of the PTTP? (3) In what other ways are the goals of the PTTP reflected in what teachers' do in their classrooms after receiving formal training?

The results indicated that the post-training experiences of the participants notably contrasted with their experiences as paraeducators. Specifically, the data indicated that the program fulfilled the participants' desire for a personal education, and their knowledge of educational matters. The data also indicated that the program: (a) helped the participants develop some teaching competencies necessary to work with LEP students, (b) did not have any effect on some of the desired competencies, and (c) resulted in the development of competencies not included as part of the goals of the training. Finally, as a result of a cultural and linguistic immersion experiences in Mexico, the participants also acquired some background knowledge of the LEP students school culture and language that they claim helps them better understand and educate their LEP students.

Paraprofessionals In Inclusive Classrooms: Working Without A Net

Milner, Carole Anne; Adviser: Olson, Myrna
The University of North Dakota, AAT 9833557, DAI-A 59/05, P. 1527, Nov 1998, 236 pp.

This qualitative study was designed to answer the question: ãWhat happens when a paraprofessional is assigned to provide individual, direct service to a student with disabilities in an inclusive classroom?ä Selection of the primary participants, paraprofessionals, was completed by securing the cooperation of three paraprofessionals identified as successful by the school principals and the special education teachers supervising the paraprofessionals. Three paraprofessionals were observed in inclusive classrooms one morning and one afternoon per week throughout the fall semester of 1997. Interviews were conducted with the 3 paraprofessionals, 3 special education teachers, 11 general education teachers of inclusive classes, 3 middle school students with disabilities, and 6 high school students with disabilities. The data obtained from the observations, interview transcripts, and diagrams drawn by interviewees were initially analyzed using $/rm NUD[/cdot]IST,$ a qualitative analysis software package, to generate the themes. Analysis was completed with the use of word processing software as a slightly more automated version of the typical index card sorting and categorizing process used by qualitative researchers.

The two major themes arising from the study are deficits in communication and deficits in preparation/training for inclusion. These deficits were most prevalent in the interactions, and lack of interactions, between paraprofessionals and general education teachers, and between special education teachers and general education teachers. The areas of communication deficit concern (1) paraprofessionals' roles, responsibilities, and preparation, (2) general education teachers' responsibility for paraprofessionals, and (3) interpretation of goals of inclusion. The deficits in preparation/training were noted in (1) appropriate use of paraprofessionals to foster social inclusion of students with disabilities, (2) opportunities for on-the-job-training and modeling for paraprofessionals, (3) inservice about inclusion for general education teachers, and (4) supervisory training for special and general education teachers.

Paraprofessionals In Italy: Perspectives From An Inclusive Counrty

Palladino, Paola; Scruggs, Thomas E.
The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v24, n4, 254-258, 1999.

Since 1977, Italy has largely eliminated special schools and special classes in favor of neighborhood school placements where students with disabilities are served primarily in general education classes. Overall class sizes are very small and caseloads of special education teachers are very favorable (about two students with disabilities for each special education teacher).Ê Because of these factors, it was thought that attitudes towards the role of paraprofessionals in Italian schools would differ from those toward paraprofessionals in the United States, where many paraprofessionals take on a more independent role in inclusive classrooms.Ê In this discussion article, we suggest that the role of paraprofessionals might be viewed differently in Italy than in the United States, and that these differences may reflect differing levels of available support for inclusive classrooms.

Parent Perspectives On The Roles Of Paraprofessionals

ÊFrench, Nancy K., Chopra, Ritu V.
The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v24, n4, 259-272, 1999.

This article examines parent perceptions of paraprofessional roles and employment conditions.Ê Nineteen mothers of 23 children who received special education services in general education classrooms with support from paraprofessionals participated in focus group interviews.Ê This exploratory study revealed that these mothers identified closely with paraprofessionals and believed that hey were compassionate, dedicated people, who functioned in four major roles: connector, team member, instructor, physical caregiver/health needs provider. ÊParticipants also identified problems associated with paraprofessional employment including the lack of training, low pay, and lack of respect for the position, resulting in high levels of turnover. ÊRespect for paraprofessionals was of particular concern to the mothers, who believed that the respect accorded to paraprofessionals reflected the respect accorded to their children.

Paraprofessionals In Job Coach Roles

Rogan, Patricia M., Held, Mary
The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v24, n4, 273-280 1999.

The purpose of this article is to examine issues related to paraprofessionals in job coach roles for students with disabilities. Postschool outcomes of students with disabilities are partially dependent on the nature and quality of supports they receive during this critical time of transition in their lives. Although schools are increasingly relying on paraprofessionals to support students in school and community settings, including workplaces, there is growing concern about their lack of preparation and support. This article describes issues related to recruitment, retention, orientation, and training of paraprofessionals in job coach roles. In addition, roles and responsibilities, supervision, support, evaluation, and compensation issuers are discussed in relation to school job coaches.Ê Recommendations for improving practice are offered, which require an investment on the part of schools to ensure the provision of quality services and supports.

The Perceptions Of The Administrators, Faculty, And Teacher Aides/Tutors Regarding Staff Development At Mountain View Elementary School (Hawaii)

Watanabe, Myrna Gail
California State University, Long Beach, AAT 1391698, MAI 37/01, p. 33, Feb 1999, 57 pp.

The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which a staff development program met the needs of administrators, faculty, and paraprofessional tutors and supported them in their efforts to implement necessary changes. Throughout the literature, it has been reported that staff development can be an effective tool for educational improvement, having more positive results if it is school based and schoolwide and teachers are involved in the planning, selecting, implementation, and decision making. Teachers need to sense ownership in the plan and have substantial amounts of technical assistance, peer coaching, and appropriate topics for those involved.

As staff development was implemented at the school, all participants were provided opportunity to give feedback on the process. The results of this study indicated that with proper implementation of staff development, the needs of faculty and staff were met. They were supported in their efforts to successfully implement necessary changes.

Preparation Of Students For Testing: Teacher Differentiation Of Appropriate And Inappropriate Practices

Moore, William P.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education (Atlanta, GA, April 13-15, 1993), 20 pp.

This paper studied whether or not elementary school classroom teachers in a large urban Midwestern school district were able to distinguish appropriate from inappropriate testing practices in a large-scale mandated program. Fifty of 62 teachers and paraprofessionals in 2 elementary schools completed the Teacher Assessment Preparation Practices Questionnaire (TAPQ), which explored 40 specific testing behaviors of teachers from pre-testing to post-testing. Respondents rated each teacher behavior regarding testing for acceptability. Participants distinguished appropriate testing behaviors, but did not demonstrate the expected capability when rating the behaviors. Less than half of the inappropriate behaviors were correctly identified. Those that were characterized as inappropriate had the largest standard errors and variability indices, indicative of disagreement among participants about the appropriateness of these practices. Teachers and paraprofessionals responded in similar ways, demonstrating similar levels of understanding of testing practice. Findings support other research results that have suggested that classroom educators are not prepared to implement appropriate and acceptable test preparation and test administration practices. Recommendations for improvement are included. One figure illustrates the discussion, and four tables summarize responses to the questionnaire items.

ERIC Accession Number: ED357033

Promoting Independence In Integrated Classrooms By Teaching Aides To Use Activity Schedules And Decreased Prompts

Hall, Laura J.; and others
Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities; v30 n3 p208-17 Sep 1995
Available fromÊ UMI

This study aimed to increase the independent engagement of integrated elementary students with disabilities, by decreasing prompts from aides and using pictorial activity schedules to diminish dependence on adult support. A nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design, replicated across three aide-child pairs, revealed that the intervention resulted in prompt reduction by the integration aides.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ510031

Recruiting And Preparing African-Americans For Teaching Through Alternative Certification

Persley, Mary L.; Adviser: Shaughnessy, Mary Angela
Spalding University, AAT 9835689, DAI-A 59/05, p. 1533, Nov 1998, 89 pp.

This study recognizes and emphasizes the need for more African-American teachers to serve the increasing diverse student population. The research focuses on alternative teacher certification as an effective model for the recruitment and preparation of nontraditional African-Americans for a teaching career. This research study was conducted by analyzing the experiences and perspectives of a cohort of 32 alternative teacher certification program participants. The participants were recruited from the African-American, paraprofessional employee ranks of Jefferson County Public Schools. The data for the subjects are classified on contingency tables according to the perceived benefit level of the alternative teacher certification program vs. the relationship to age, gender, and the number of years out of school prior to entering the program. Using inferential testing, parametric chi-square hypothesis tests for independence was performed at the.05 level of significance on each of the contingency tables. The overall findings are that there is no difference in perception of program benefit level with regard to age and gender. However, there is a significant relationship to the number of years out of school versus the perceived level of program benefit. This study also discloses the features that make for an effective alternative teacher certification program from the subjects' perspectives.

Report Of Organization Of The Field Work Group A

McEwen, B.; and others,
Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness; v86 n7 suppl p344-45 Sep 1992
NOTE:Ê Theme Issue: The State of the Blindness System Today. 1987-1990 Helen Keller Seminars.

This summary of a seminar meeting on reorganization of the field of rehabilitation for persons with blindness or visual impairment addresses the need for a national coalition, formation of a national agency for blind persons, consolidation of services, the use of paraprofessionals, the need for separate state plans, agency accreditation, and training of professionals.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ455801

The Tip Of The Iceberg: Determining Whether Paraprofessional Support Is Needed For Students With Disabilities In General Education Settings

Giangrecco, Michael F., Broer, Stephen M., Edelman, Susan W.

The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, v24, n4, 281-291, 1999.

Parprofessionals represent an important and growing segment of the personnel support used in American schools to provide inclusive educational opportunities to students with disabilities.Ê When and how to utilize paraprofessionals effectively, persists as an ongoing challenge in the schools.Ê After presenting selected issues associated with employing paraprofessionals, this article extends the discussion on paraprofessional issues by exploring guidelines to assist teams in making decisions about paraprofessional supports. This includes both considerations for the appropriate use of paraprofessionals when assigned, as well as alternative support solutions. Our discussion is intended to advance dialogue on this important topic and to support the appropriate involvement of paraprofessionals in the education of students with disabilities as valued participants on collaborative teams whose roles are clearly defined and supported.

Use Of Focus-Group Needs Assessment For Planning Paraprofessional Staff Development In Iowa's Education Settings

Hansen, Deb
Journal of Children's Communication Development; v18 n1 p81-89 Spr-Sum 1997

Describes how focus groups comprised of speech-language professionals, paraprofessionals, general and special education teachers, and parents in Iowa were used to conduct a needs assessment of issues in staff development and use of paraprofessional personnel and to design job-relevant personnel development programs. An attached chart lists themes emerging from the groups.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550633

Using Interpreter-Tutors In School Programs For Students Who Are Deaf-Blind

Ford, J.; Fredericks,B.
Journal-of-Visual-Impairment-&-Blindness; v89 n3 p229-34 May-Jun 1995
Available from UMI

This article presents a model for utilizing a new paraprofessional, the interpreter-tutor, to help provide necessary educational support in public schools to children who are deaf-blind. It discusses the role of the interpreter-tutor, outlines required knowledge and skills, and gives a case study example.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ506625

Utilization Of Paraprofessionals In Special Education: A Review Of The Literature

Jones, Karen H.; Bender, William N.
Remedial and Special Education (RASE); v14 n1 p7-14 Jan-Feb 1993

This article reviews research examining expanding roles of paraprofessionals in special education; their efficacy, based on student outcomes and educators' perceptions; empirical bases for training; and training models. Conclusions are drawn concerning the expanded role of paraprofessionals, lack of efficacy data, and lack of systematic training.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ459464