Policy Questions and Administrative Issues

A Commonsense Guide To Bilingual Education

Chapter 5: Bilingual Teachers and Aides
Judith Lessow-Hurley
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA; 92 pp., 1991
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1250 N. Pitt St., Alexandria, VA (Stock No. 611-91115, $6.95)

Guide analyzes current issues in bilingual education, reviews related research, describes innovative and exemplary program formats for dual-language programming, and examines issues in bilingual education for both limited-English-proficient (LEP) and monolingual native-English-speaking students. Chapter 5 discusses the roles of teachers and paraprofessionals in bilingual classrooms.

The Community Support Skill Standards: Tools For Managing Change And Achieving Outcomes

Skill Standards for Direct Service Workers in the Human Services
Marianne Taylor, Valerie Bradley, and Ralph Warren, Jr., editors; 86 pp.; 1996
Human Services Research Institute, 2336 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02140; telephone 617-876-0426

Project, funded by the U.S. Department of Education, is designed to foster the adoption of national, voluntary skill standards for direct service workers, increase both horizontal and vertical career opportunities for human service personnel, and to create a foundation for a nationally recognized, voluntary certification of direct service practitioners.

Employment, Preparation And Management Of Paraeducators: Challenges To Appropriate Service For Students With Developmental Disabilities

Hilton, Alan; Gerlach, Kent
Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities; v32 n2 p71-76 Jun 1997

Presents a position statement of the Board of Directors of the Division on Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities that reviews the employment, preparation, and management of paraeducators. The statement addresses role definition, employment and management, legal and ethical responsibilities, job descriptions, paraeducator training, and supervisory training.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ547459

Guide For Effective Paraeducator Practices In Iowa

Iowa Department of Education, Division of Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education, 54 pp. plus handouts, January 1998
State of Iowa, Department of Education, Grimes State Office Bldg., Des Moines, Iowa 50319-0146

This guide describes the services that are necessary to support effective paraeducator services in accredited Iowa schools. It is intended to assist schools in improving services to children as well as complying with rules and regulations. The guidelines offered are intended as a prototype for local adoption and a framework for dialogue among teachers, paraeducators, and others. They may be modified with local input.

Guildelines For Language, Academic, And Special Education Services Required For Limited-English-Proficient Students In California Public Schools, K-12

Special Education Division, California Department of Education, Sacramento, 26 pp., 1997
Department, PO Box 944272, Sacramento, CA 94244-2720

Describes what bilingual education and special education services are required in California for limited-English-proficient students K-12. Does not address all the services required for these students, but does specify how those students identified as requiring special education services are ensured access to the core curriculum. Summarizes applicable requirements and procedures that California educational agencies must undertake to comply with federal and state statutes and regulations as well as applicable court cases.

Helping Or Hovering? Effects Of Instructional Assistant Proximity On Students With Disabilities

Giangreco, Michael F.; Edelman, Susan W.; Luiselli, Tracy Evans; MacFarland, Stephanie Z.C.
Exceptional Children; v64 n1 p7-18 Fall 1997

Observations and interviews in 16 classrooms concerning proximity of instructional assistants to students with disabilities found: (1) interference with general educator responsibility; (2) separation from classmates; (3) dependence on adults; (4) impact on peer interactions; (5) limitations on receiving competent instruction; (6) loss of personal control; (7) loss of gender identity; and (8) interference with instruction of other students.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ552179

Home Visitor

Child Development Associate Assessment and Competency Standards
CDA National Credentialing Program, 46 pp., 1992
Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, 1341 G Street, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005-3105

Part I: An overview of the CDA National Credentialing Program and the Competency standards and assessment system for home visitors. Part II: The eligibility requirements and information collection responsibilities of the four members of the local team that conducts the evaluation of a Candidate for the CDA Credential. Part III: The complete CDA Competency Standards for Home Visitors. Appendices include a history of the CDA program and a glossary of terms.

Issues In The Development Of Guidelines For The Preparation And Use Of Speech-Language Paraprofessionals And Their Sl Supervisors Working In Education Settings

Radaszewski Byrne, Mary
Journal of Children’s Communication Development; v18 n1 p5-21 Spr-Sum 1997

Abstract:Ê Reviews the preparation, use, supervision, and qualifications of speech-language (SL) paraprofessionals and their SL supervisors working in educational settings. Identifies ongoing issues that have been barriers to the development of national and state guidelines for SL paraprofessional use and supervision and discusses current issues promoting the development of such guidelines. Offers recommendations.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550628

The Key To Lowering Staff Turnover Is In The Hiring

Fowler, Dora
Early Childhood News; v8 n1 p34-35 Jan-Feb 1996

Discusses the benefits of using a pre-employment test to help screen job candidates for those qualities that lead to cost-effective long-term employment. Gives an example of how to determine the cost of staff turnover at any child-care facility.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ520378

Learning Disabilities: Use Of Paraprofessionals

National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities
Asha. v. 41 no. 2 (Mar./Apr. 1999 supplement no.19) pp. 37-46

A document on the use of paraprofessionals in the treatment of learning disabilities from the U.S. National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities is presented. Aspects discussed in the document are the foundation for successful paraprofessional services, key word definitions, ethical responsibilities, education requirements for paraprofessionals, roles and responsibilities of paraprofessionals in a learning disabilities program, activities outside the scope of responsibilities for paraprofessionals, responsibilities of the qualified teacher/service provider with regard to the use of paraprofessionals, and guidelines for the supervision of paraprofessionals.

Necessity: The Mother Of Invention. A Parent’s Recommendation For The Preparation And Use Of Speech-Language Paraprofessionals In Education Settings

Haas, Eileen M.
Journal of Children’s Communication Development; v18 n1 p111-13 Spr-Sum 1997

The mother of a 12-year-old medically fragile profoundly deaf child, urges the utilization of speech-language paraprofessionals in the schools in light of her successful experiences with paraprofessionals and the shortage of speech-language therapists competent in sign language. Training suggestions are also provided.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550636

Parameters Of Paraprofessionalism: Exploring The Myths And Realities Associated With Paraprofessionals In Rehabilitation Settings [And] Comments On Benshoff, Et Al.

Benshoff, John J.; and others
Journal of Rehabilitation Administration; v19 n2 p133-43, 145-46 May 1995
Available from Journal of Rehabilitation Administration, PO Box 19891, San Diego, CA 92159

Benshoff and others explore misconceptions about the inservice training needs, continuing education, supervision, and evaluation of rehabilitation paraprofessionals. A response by Emener draws distinctions between professionals and paraprofessionals.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ521078

Preparing Teachers To Work With Paraeducators

Salzberg, Charles L.; Morgan, Jill
Teacher Education and Special Education; v18 n1 p49-55 Win 1995
Available from UMI

This article reviews the literature on preparing teachers to work with and supervise paraeducators in classrooms serving students at risk or with disabilities. Although considerable agreement was found on the content of such preparation, the review found that the number of researchers and developers in this area is currently small.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ516090

Profiles In Collaboration

Chapter 4: Kansas Project Partnership: A State Systems Change Approach to Improving Teacher Development

Shortages In Professions Working With Young Children With Disabilities And Their Families

Hebbeler, Kathleen
North Carolina University, Chapel Hill, Frank Porter Graham Center, 1994, 43 p.; A product of the National Early Childhood Technical Assistance System.
NEC*TAS Coordinating Office Publications, 550 NationsBank Plaza, 137 E. Franklin St., Chapel Hill, NC 27514 ($5, quantity discounts available).

This paper synthesizes information about shortages among the professions working with young children with disabilities, birth through age 5, and their families. The paper begins with a look at national data on personnel working in early intervention and preschool special education. Distinctions between the work force in early intervention (Part H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and preschool special education (Part B of the IDEA) are clarified. The paper reports that teachers and paraprofessionals make up the largest portion of the more than 30,000 individuals working in early intervention; teachers and speech-language pathologists working with preschoolers total more than 17,000 (with no data on related services personnel). The paper examines shortages in key professions and what the future is likely to hold for them, focusing on physical and occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, nurses, and teachers. Other issues related to personnel planning are discussed, including personnel quality, the impact of contracted services, and program adaptation to personnel shortages. The paper then explores various approaches and some of the challenges to quantifying shortages. The paper closes with a discussion of possible responses to the problem, such as decreasing attrition, staffing differently, and revising professional standards to increase supply. (Contains 36 references.)

ERIC Accession Number: ED376637

Speech-Language Paraprofessionals Working In Kentucky Schools

Blodgett, Elizabeth G.; Miller, Jean M.
Journal of Children’s Communication Development; v18 n1 p65-79 Spr-Sum 1997

Describes factors leading to the recent statewide introduction of speech-language paraprofessionals called speech-language pathology assistants (SLPA) in Kentucky’s public schools. Also describes the licensure model, requirements for SLPA licensure, and the scope of practice associated with the position. Reports results of a survey indicating positive effects of SLPAs on service delivery.

ERIC Accession Number: EJ550632